James Grier Miller (1916-)

  • contributed by G. A. Swanson, Professor at Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN 38505 USA

James Grier Miller, a pioneer of systems science, served as president of the University of Louisville from 1973 to 1980. He received his A.B. summa cum laude, A.M., M.D. cum laude, and Ph.D. degrees from Harvard University, where he was also a junior fellow of the Society of Fellows. He has served on the faculties at Harvard, the University of Chicago, the University of Michigan, and Johns Hopkins University.

At Chicago he originated the modern use of the term ‘behavioral science’ and was chairman of the Committee on Behavioral Sciences as well as the Department of Psychology. At Michigan he founded and directed the multi-disciplinary Mental Health Research Institute. He has held several additional academic and governmental administrative positions. He was a founder and the first head of EDUCOM (the Interuniversity Communications Council). He also has been a fellow of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Vienna.

For more than 30 years Dr. Miller was editor of the Journal Behavioral Science. He has written or co-authored nine books and published more than 100 scientific and scholarly articles. He is a fellow or member of numerous scientific and professional societies. He served as president of ISSS (SGSR) succeeding Margaret Mead in 1973.

While a student at Harvard, Miller took the courses of Alfred North Whitehead and other professors in the Department of Philosophy and Psychology, as well as a dozen other departments. Whitehead became his particular mentor as well as personal friend and strongly influenced his future intellectual interests. He suggested that Miller make a serious attempt to develop a theoretical integration of the biological and social sciences dealing with mankind and other living beings, comparable to the general cosmological theories about the physical universe developed by Sir Arthur S. Eddington and Sir James H. Jeans, who were at Cambridge while Whitehead was teaching there. Miller's first scholarly publication appeared in the Harvard Guardian in 1937, entitled ‘Whitehead: History in the Grand Manner.’ His writing of this article was closely supervised by Whitehead. Miller also studied and did research under Professors Henry A. Murray, Edwin G. Boring, and Gordon W. Allport. He wrote his honors thesis on ‘A Brief for a Reprieve for Qualities’ and graduated in 1937 summa cum laude, with the highest grade-point average in his class.

In the Fall of 1937, Miller remained at Harvard, studying for the A.M. in Psychology, which he received in 1938. At the same time he was assistant and tutor in psychology, teaching sections in the beginning Psychology course and tutoring undergraduate students majoring in that field. He also taught psychology at Cambridge Junior college. During this year, he continued to work closely with Whitehead, Murray, and Boring and, with their support, was appointed a Junior Fellow in the Harvard Society of Fellows.

Miller had two terms in the Society of Fellows, a total of six years, beginning September 1938 and running until 1944. During that time, he conducted research toward his Ph.D. in psychology, which included his book Unconsciousness and his experiments on subliminal perception. He also completed four years of training at Harvard Medical School. He received his M.D. cum laude in 1942 and his Ph.D. in Psychology in 1943. He served one year of internship in general medicine at the Massachusetts General Hospital, and more than a year as Assistant Resident and Chief Resident in Psychiatry at that hospital.

On July 1, 1943, Miller went on active duty as 1st Lieutenant in the United States Army Medical Corps. His professor at Harvard, Dr. Henry A. Murray, was then a Lieutenant Colonel in the Army and Chief of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) Assessment Unit. At Dr. Murray’s request, Miller was assigned to the same command. The Assessment Unit was responsible for the physical, psychological, and psychiatric screening of all candidates for positions in OSS worldwide. When Colonel Murray left the Army in 1945, Captain Miller replaced him as military commander. Murray had begun the writing of a final report on the activities of the Assessment Unit which was completed during Miller’s tenure and published as Assessment of Men under the joint authorship of the OSS assessment staff. Miller’s service in the Army and in OSS ended in December 1945.

In January 1946, Miller was appointed by General Omar Bradley and General Paul R. Hawley, Chief Medical Director, to be the first Chief of the new Clinical Psychology Section in the Central Office of the Veterans Administration in Washington, D.C. During 1946 and 1947 he served under Dr. Daniel Blain, Chief Psychiatrist, setting up the first national clinical psychology program the Veterans Administration ever had. During those two years, about two thousand psychologists (one quarter of all the psychologists in the United States) joined this program. The Ph.D. degree was established by the American Psychological Association, at the request of Miller, representing the Veterans Administration, as the appropriate level of training for clinical psychologists. After that, more than 40 universities, including the University of Michigan, joined a novel national program of doctoral training in clinical psychology with financial support from the federal government. Later, Miller was elected president of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association, serving in 1958 and 1959.

In 1946 and 1947, Miller was Assistant Professor (Clinical Psychology) in the new Department of Social Relations at Harvard. Although technically on leave, he visited Harvard regularly during this year and, as the only clinician then on that faculty, participated in the original planning for that department, which was chaired by Professor Talcott Parsons.

On January 1, 1948, Miller became professor and chairman of the Department of Psychology at the University of Chicago, a post which he held until June 30, 1955. He also was professor in the Department of Medicine, Division of Psychiatry, from 1948 to 1951 nd chairman of the Committee on the Behavioral Sciences from 1952 to 1955.

At the University of Chicago in 1949, Miller joined the Innominate Club, a faculty research club, of which Professor Enrico Fermi was also a member. Fermi urged Miller to work with other professors at the University to develop an integration of biological and social scientific knowledge about life. He hoped that such a theoretical approach might lead to better understanding of human behavior, as general theories in physical science had advanced understanding of physical phenomena. Such increased understanding, he hoped, would prevent human beings from destroying themselves by nuclear warfare. Fermi’s suggestion was comparable to Whitehead’s earlier recommendation that Miller work for development of a general theory of life. Miller expressed his skepticism that the biological and social sciences were as yet sufficiently advanced for such an endeavor, but nevertheless, he was intrigued by the idea. On his own initiative, Fermi requested President Robert Maynard Hutchins of the University of Chicago to provide Miller with funds to finance a group of professors in such an integrative effort. Miller, with the assistance of Dean Ralph W. Tyler of the Social Science Division and Dean Lowell T. Coggeshall of Biological Sciences Division, selected an interdisciplinary group of senior professors who agreed that they would participate in such a project. Miller was selected to chair this group.

Since September 1947, Miller had been searching for a new term to describe all the sciences of life, biological and social. He finally decided that ‘behavioral science’ would be best, and on October 23, 1949, he wrote a memorandum to Professor Robert Havighurst recommending that the new interdisciplinary group be called the Committee on the Behavioral Sciences. This was the first use of the term ‘behavioral science’ in its current sense. Later, Professor Donald G. Marquis, chairman of the Department of Psychology at the University of Michigan, who was a close friend of Miller, was serving on the planning group for the Ford Foundation chaired by Mr. Rowan Gaither. He recommended that the Foundation start a program in behavioral science, and this was done. The new grants made available by the foundation under this program gave worldwide currency to the term.

The Committee on the Behavioral Sciences at the University of Chicago met for planning sessions and preliminary conversations from 1950 to 1952. In May 1951, Miller privately circulated copies of a manuscript entitled ‘The Behavioral Sciences’ [1]. It was the first draft of what ultimately became his book Living Systems, which was published by Mc Graw-Hill in 1978. It dealt with the relation between science and the humanities and particularly with scientific method in the behavioral sciences. It concentrated primarily on a set of 22 basic principles that cut across the biological and social behavioral sciences.

By October 13, 1952, a Theory Group had been organized and it then began regular meetings of which minutes were preserved [2]. The participants at the first meeting were Donald T. Campbell, David Easton, Donald W. Fiske, Ward C. Halstead, Henrietta Herbolsheimer, James Grier Miller, Roger W. Sperry, and Sherwood L. Washburn. These theoretical discussions continued on a nearly weekly basis until 1955. The group added new faculty members in different disciplines, as well as doctoral and post-doctoral students. They gradually began to concentrate on systems and cybernetics concepts concerning various levels of complexity of biological and social systems. They also began to design experiments to evaluate hypotheses concerning such systems. Particular emphasis was placed on cross-level hypotheses.

Miller organized and presented the introductory statement of a symposium at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association on September 8, 1953. The record of this session appeared as the first printed publication of the University of Chicago Committee on the Behavioral Sciences. It was entitled ‘Symposium: Profits and Problems of Homeostatic Models in the Behavioral Sciences’ [3], and was written by the following members of the Committee on Behavioral Sciences: James Grier Miller, R. W. Gerard, Anatol Rapoport, David Easton, and Donald T. Campbell. In his introductory paper, Miller indicated that their group had analyzed such issues as the unity of science, the various jargons of different disciplines and academic schools, reductionism, and formal identities and analogies among various types and levels of living entities. He also discussed basic research on systems and a number of potential applications of such research.

A more advanced article entitled ‘Toward a General Theory for the Behavioral Sciences’ was published by Miller in the September 1955 issue of the American Psychologist [4] and reprinted in 1956 in The State of the Social Sciences, edited by L. D. white [5]. This book contains the papers read at the scientific sessions of the 25th anniversary of the opening of the Social Science Research building at the University of Chicago on November 10-12, 1955. Among the participants were Walter Lippman, Arnold Toynbee, and three who later became Nobel Laureates, F. A. Hayek, Milton Friedman, and Herbert Simon. On this occasion, Simon and Newell made the first important critique of Miller’s theory, expressing some reservations but also a certain degree of hopefulness and concluding:

You will note that all of the examples I have cited are at a relatively concrete level. They have not involved the construction of a common theory so much as the imaginative use of analogy to suggest special theories. It is perhaps also worth observing that what is transferred in these examples in largely the mathematical frameworks of the theories and only to a slight extent the more special content. I do not believe that there is between Miller and me any difference in principle on this point—there is, perhaps, a difference in strategy and tactics—a difference in the importance we attach to the construction of a formal general systems theory’ [6].

In his 1962 article, ‘The Architecture of Complexity,’ Simon was more positive in recognizing the value of cross-level systems theory. He wrote:

A number of proposals have been advanced in recent years for the development of ‘general systems theory’ which, abstracting from properties peculiar to physical, biological, or social systems, would be applicable to all of them. We might well feel that, while the goal is laudable, systems of such diverse kinds could hardly be expected to have any nontrivial properties in common. Metaphor and analogy can be helpful, or they can be misleading. All depends on whether the similarities the metaphor captures are significant or superficial.

It may not be entirely vain, however, to search for common properties among diverse kinds of complex systems. . . . The ideas of feedback and information provide a frame of reference for viewing a wide range of situations, just as do the ideas of evolution, of relativism, of axiomatic method, and of operationalism . . . hierarchic systems have some common properties that are independent of their specific content. . . . [7]

Beginning in 1953, the Committee on the Behavioral Sciences planned to create an Institute of Behavioral Science and Miller, as its chairman, began to raise funds to construct a building and endow the program. Dr. Raymond W. Waggoner, chairman of the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Michigan, learned of this activity and invited Miller, together with a group of his senior colleagues, to move to Ann Arbor. He obtained from the Michigan Legislature a commitment to construct the sort of building that had been envisioned for Chicago and to provide a continuing appropriation of sufficient size to operate the planned institute. Chancellor Lawrence Kimpton of the University of Chicago and President Harlan Hatcher of the University of Michigan agreed that a move to Ann Arbor was the optimal solution for the situation.

On July 1, 1955, Miller arrived as director of the new Michigan institute, accompanied by Ralph W. Gerard and Anatol Rapoport. Later, Robert I. Crane and Richard L. Meiser joined them from Chicago.

The Institute was established in the Department of Psychiatry of the University of Michigan School of Medicine. Dr. Raymond W. Waggoner, chairman of the department, had initiated all the necessary administrative and financial actions required to make this possible. President Harlan Hatcher asked that the new Michigan program be named the Mental Health Research Institute rather than the Institute of Behavioral Science because he thought that that name would make it easier to secure financing. It was always understood, however, that the Institute was to carry on behavioral science research in a systems framework like that begun at the University of Chicago.

In the Institute’s basic research, special emphasis was placed on the evaluation of cross-level hypotheses, a then novel sort of investigation. Quantitative laboratory measurements of comparable phenomena were made across multiple levels of biological and social systems. The first such research ever carried out was the Information Input Overload study made by an interdisciplinary group of scientists with Miller as principal investigator. This study of comparable input-output effects and adjustment processes, at the levels of the cell, organ, organism, group, and organization, was published in 1960 [8]. In 1982 Professor Daniel Bell of Harvard University, in his book The Social Sciences Since the Second World War, listed such research as one of 62 basic innovations in social science between the years 1900 and 1965 [9].

Other cross-level experiments on different systems hypotheses were conducted by Anatol Rapoport and other investigators at the Institute in the 1950s and 1960s.

Miller was director of the Mental Health Research Institute from 1955 to 1967. Shortly after his arrival he refused the invitation of Dr. Robert Oppenheimer to join the staff of the Institute for Advanced Studies at Princeton because he wished to remain to lead the development of the Mental Health Research Institute. During his years there, the program advanced and expanded in many directions. It increased in size to about 100 scientists in approximately 20 disciplines of the mathematical, physical, biological, social, medical, and engineering sciences. Among the numerous areas given special attention were neuropsychopharmacology, brain biochemistry, and physiological basis of memory, schizophrenia, game theory, and conflict resolution.

During this time, several national and international activities were initiated at the Institute. The first issue of the journal Behavioral Science was published in January 1956 with senior professors in the Chicago and Michigan groups as the original Board of Editors. Miller, from the beginning, had the primary editorial responsibility which continued for more than thirty years. Also in 1956, the General Systems Yearbook was first published under the joint editorship of Ludwig von Bertalanffy and Anatol Rapoport. Ten years later, systems scientists in the Soviet Union published their own comparable General Systems Yearbook in Russian.

About the same time the two American publications were getting under way, the Society for General Systems Research was being founded by senior scientists at the Institute, including Rapoport, Gerard, Miller, and Meiser, Kenneth Boulding of the University of Michigan Department of Economics, Margaret Mead of the American Museum of Natural History, and others. In 1976, a videotape recording was made of a discussion between Margaret Mead and Miller. In it they talked about their relationships with many of the pioneers of cybernetics and systems science in the late 1940s and 1950s [10]. For the last few years of her life, Margaret Mead was coeditor with Miller of Behavioral Science. Miller succeeded her as president of the Society for General Systems research at the Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1973.

In 1957, a few weeks after Sputnik, Vice President Richard M. Nixon became interested in the question of whether the United States was lagging behind the soviet Union in the development of behavioral science, as they appeared to be in space science. He asked Miller to organize a committee of leaders of the behavioral sciences to review the current state of those fields. Miller procured funds from the Ford Foundation to make such a study and report. He brought together the following committee: Raymond A. Bauer, Harvard Business Schools; George P. Berry, Dean, Harvard Medical School; Paul H. Buck, Professor of History and former Provost, Harvard University; Ralph W. Gerard, Mental Health Research Institute, University of Michigan; H. Bentley Glass, Professor of Biology, Johns Hopkins University; the Reverend C. Leslie Glenn, Mental Health Research Institute, University of Michigan; Clyde K. Kluckhohn, Professor of Anthropology, Harvard University; Donald G. Marquis, Chairman, Department of Psychology, University of Michigan; Robert K. Merton, Professor of Sociology, Columbia University; Max F. Millikan, Director, Center for International Studies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Frank Stanton, President Columbia Broadcasting System; Samuel A. Stouffer, Director, Laboratory of Social Relations, Harvard University; Ralph W. Tyler, Director, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford, California; and John C. Whitehorn, Director, Department of Psychiatry, John Hopkins University Medical School. This committee, in February 1958, issued a public report entitled National Support for Behavioral Science [11]. It recommended to the Eisenhower Administration participation of behavioral scientists in the work of the Office of the Assistant to the President for Science and Technology, and also increased funding for behavioral science in various agencies. In response to this report, Professor Rensis Likert of the University of Michigan and Miller were invited to make presentations to the President’s Science Advisory committee. Their statements were followed by what was probably the first discussion of the human sciences in that committee. Though there may have been no direct relationship, some months later the first behavioral scientist was appointed to that committee.

As a result of that report, Miller was asked to organize a State Department exchange between behavioral scientists representing the United States Academy of Science and scientists representing the Soviet Academy of Science. This visit was made in the spring of 1961 [12]. Four scientists from the University of Michigan made the trip: Raymond Waggoner, Donald Marquis, Anatol Rapoport, and James Miller. Later, Soviet scientists made a return visit to the United States. Miller was designated by the State Department as their official host in the United States.

On October 5-8, 1963, the Association of American Medical Colleges held its first Institute on Medical School Administration at the Hilton Inn in Atlanta, Georgia. Miller was asked to give an address on the applications of his research on information input overload to the problems of medical school administration. He entitled his talk ‘Coping with Administrators’ Information Overload’ [13]. In it he pointed out the general principle that living systems at all levels have channels and nets as essential subsystems, and that these can be overloaded with information input. He reported what his research had shown about coping mechanisms for such overload and then suggested practical applications of these facts to teaching, research, and administration in medical schools. He particularly emphasized how modern information processing technology could be of assistance. A few weeks later, Dr. Ward Darley, who was then Medical Director of the Association of American Medical Colleges, informed Miller that a number of the medical administrators who attended the Institute wanted to take practical steps to implement his suggestions.

Dr. Darley asked Miller to suggest what they could do. On the basis of his recommendations, the deans or health vice presidents of eight universities in 1964 organized the Interuniversity Communications Council, now commonly known as EDUCOM. They, themselves, served as the original Board of Trustees and they selected Miller to be the first chief administrator. EDUCOM was incorporated in the State of Michigan by Dean William N. Hubbard, Jr., of the University of Michigan Medical School, Associate Dean Judge, and Miller. Its first headquarters were at the University of Michigan Mental Health Research Institute. The founding universities were: Duke University, the University of Virginia, the State University of New York, Harvard University, the University of Pittsburgh, the University of Michigan, the University of Illinois, and the University of California. More than 20 years later, EDUCOM had expanded to include not only medicine but all academic disciplines in more than 500 colleges and universities in the United States and Canada. It provided various services that use information processing technology to improve higher education, and it operated two interuniversity computer networks throughout Canada and the United States, EDUNET and BITNET. The implementation of EDUNET began in 1967 in accordance with a plan outlined in the book EDUNET written by George W. Brown, James G. Miller, and Thomas A. Keenan [14].

Some months after EDUCOM was established, Governor George Romney of Michigan asked Miller to chair an interuniversity committee to plan how to interconnect the computers at Wayne State University, the University of Michigan, and Michigan State University. Miller developed such a plan and reported on it to Dr. Allen Smith, vice president for Academic Affairs at the University of Michigan. As a result, Michigan’s first inter-campus program for interuniversity planning of computer resources, MICIS, was established under Vice President Smith’s leadership. From this organization, Michigan’s interuniversity computer network, MERIT, evolved.

In 1967, Miller became Vice President for Academic Affairs of the newly established Cleveland State University, and in 1970 he was made provost. In 1967 he had presented a paper at the University of California at Irvine on a systems analysis of the flow of administrative information in colleges and universities [15]. He was interested in whether a systems approach, including the use of information processing technology, could enhance the quality and increase the efficiency of education and research in a new university. While in Cleveland, he investigated in depth the practical advantages and problems of such an approach.

In 1971, Miller was offered an opportunity to extend his work in instructional systems by becoming vice president in the Washington office of the Academy for Educational Development. He also was made consultant to the Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention in the White House and lecturer in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Johns Hopkins University Medical School. At the Academy for Educational Development he was given responsibility for its international program in instructional technology. He also was a consultant on instructional systems for the United States State Department to the governments of Brazil, El Salvador, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Vietnam, Thailand, and India. During this period he began to make detailed plans for a worldwide interconnection of educational institutions by electronic networks.

The University of Louisville selected Miller as its president in February 1973. He served from later that year until September 30, 1980. As at Cleveland State, he was intrigued by the opportunities in a university new to a state system (although the University of Louisville had been a private municipal university since 1798). During his more than seven years as president, the university grew from an enrollment of 9,000 to more than 20,000 students and the budget quintupled. Its academic quality improved significantly. Miller gave leadership to the creation of a Systems Science Institute at the University. Also he spent the summers of 1973 and 1974 as a Fellow at the new International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) in Laxenburg, Austria. This is the first permanent scientific research institute in any discipline ever to be established jointly by the United States, the Soviet Union, and other capitalist and socialist nations. While he was there, Miller chaired IIASA’s program in methodology and systems theory.

While he was in Louisville, Miller’s major book Living Systems was published [16]. It had been in preparation more than 25 years. This book of 750,000 words contains evidence from more than 3,000 scientific articles to support its thesis that over more than 3 billion years there has been an evolution of seven levels of progressively more complex living systems. Each of these levels consists of input-output systems which process matter, energy, and information through 19 subsystems which are essential for them to survive. Living Systems received about forty review in journals of about twenty disciplines, and almost all of them were strongly positive or positive.

Miller left Kentucky at the end of 1980 and joined the faculty of the University of California in 1981. He became a Visiting Professor of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences at UCLA and President of the Hutchins Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions at the University of California at Santa Barbara. He moved to La Jolla, California, in 1984.

Miller’s basic research concentrates on cross-level studies. By 1985 at least ten individual investigators or research groups, including two Nobel Laureates, had carried out cross-level studies in several different institutions. Miller and his associates are working on various other cross-level studies, including the role of entropy, stresses and adjustment processes to them, operant conditioning, and clocks or other means for coordinating systems over time.

It is possible to carry out quantitative, applied living researches at all levels of biological and social systems. At the level of the cell, efforts are being made to combine findings from multiple biochemical experiments in order to be able to simulate the input-output flows of various sorts of matter, energy, and information in cells. These analyses will be compared with simulations at other levels of systems like organizations. They are also examining use of artificial intelligence ‘expert systems’ to study dysfunctions in internal processes of organizations much as they are being used to diagnose the internal processes of individual patients.

Living systems studies have been made of groups of patients on hospital words and of psychotherapeutic groups. Proposals have been made to study matter-energy and information flows in the subsystems of ant colonies. Several different researches have been carried out or are under way on different types of organizations, including schools, hospitals, corporations, army battalions, a public utility, and other government agencies [17]. A living systems general theory of accounting is under development. A preliminary study from a living systems viewpoint of a permanent human settlement on the moon has been made, and plans are under way to extend such work to other habitations in space.

In recent years, Miller has been invited to give public lectures on his research throughout the United States and other counties, including at the 100th anniversary of the University of Stockholm, at the Argentine Scientific Society, at the Chinese Academy of Science in Beijing, at the Institute for Systems Science Oberwallis in Brig, Switzerland, and the cybernetic Society of Austria, in Vienna. He has also delivered the Brunel Lecture at MIT and the Estelle Brodman Lecture at Washington University in St. Louis. He was invited to give the Hightower Lecture at Emory University in 1985 and to lecture in Australia, Singapore, and Chine in 1986.

In conclusion, it is apparent that Miller’s scientific and professional activities have centered around the single theme of integrating knowledge about biological and social systems. But there have been great changes over the years. His early approach to science, under the influence of Whitehead, was a mixture of philosophy and experimentation. His current research relates modern information processing technologies to living systems. The basic research consists of quantitative studies of cross-level identities among multiple levels of systems. The applications extend from the use of artificial intelligence ‘expert systems’ to measure matter, energy, and information flows in living systems to the development of an electronic University of the world.

A crucial factor of Dr. Miller’s scientific productivity has been the constant and congenial support from his wife Jessie. She is a psychologist by training and has co-authored many of his publications (cf. Bibliography at the end of this contribution). The extent of that relationship is stated in his dedication of the book LIVING SYSTEMS – TO JESSIE, colleague in every line.

Dr. Miller's life and contributions to theory and practice clearly reflect the directive he accepted for himself from the Harvard Society of Fellows:

You will seek not a near, but distant objective, and you will not be satisfied with what you may have done. All that you may achieve or discover you will regard as a fragment of a larger pattern, which, from his or her separate approach, every true scholar is striving to descry.

References

[1]Miller, J. G. The Behavioral Sciences, 1951. (Privately circulated.)

[2]Proceedings of the Committee on the Behavioral Sciences Theory Group. University of Chicago, August 20, 1952-July 7, 1953. (Privately circulated.)

[3]Members of the Committee on the Behavioral Sciences, University of Chicago. Symposium: Profits and Problems of Homeostatic Models in the Behavioral Sciences. Chicago Behavioral Sciences Publications, No. 1, 1953.

[4]Miller,, J. G. ‘Toward a General Theory for the Behavioral Sciences.’ The American Psychologist, 1955, 10, 513-531.

[5]Miller, J. G. ‘Toward a General Theory for the Behavioral Sciences.’ The State of the Social Sciences. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956, 29-65.

[6]Simon, H. A. and A. Newell. ‘Models: Their Uses and Limitations.’ The State of the social Sciences. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956, 79.

[7]Simon, H. A. ‘The Architecture of complexity.’ Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 1962, 106, 467-468.

[8]Miller, J. G. ‘Information Input Overload and Psychopathology.’ American Journal of Psychiatry, 1960, 116, 695-704.

[9]Bell, D. The social Sciences Since the Second World War. New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1982, 18.

[10]Miller, J. G. and Margaret Mead. Behavioral Science, 1980, 25, 1-8.

[11]Bauer, R. A., G. P. Berry, T. H. Buck, R. W. Gerard, H. B. Glass, Rev. C. L. Glenn, C. K. Kluckhohn, D. G. Marquis, R. K. Merton, J. G. Miller, M. F. Millikan, F. Stanton, S. A. Stouffer, R. W. Tyler, and J. C. Whitehorn. National Support for Behavioral Science, February 1958.

[12]Miller, J. L. and J. G. Miller. ‘Behavioral Scientists Visit the Soviet Union. Behavioral lScience, 1962, 7, 343-378.

[13]Miller, J. G. ‘Coping with Administrators’ Information Overload,’ In R. M. Boucher and L. Powers (Ed.). Report of the First Institute on Medical School Administration. Evanston: Association of American Medical Colleges, 1964, 47-54.

[14]Brown, G. W., J. G. Miller and T. A. Keenan. EDUNET. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1967.

[15]Miller, J. G. ‘Administartion—Top-Level Information Flow.’ In R. W. Gerard (Ed.). Computers and Education, New York: Mc Graw-Hill, 1967, 229-273.

[16]Miller, J. G. Living Systems. New York: Mc Graw-Hill, 1978.

[17]Ruscoe, G. C., R. L. Fell, K. T. Hunt, S. L. Merker, L. R. Peter, Maj. J. S. Cary, J. G. Miller, Cpt. B. G. Lee, Cpt. R. W. Reed, and Cpt. M. I. Sturm. ‘The Application of Living Systems Theory to 41 U.S. Army Battalions.’ Behavioral Science, 1985, 30, 1-53.

The Seminal Publication on Living Systems Theory: LIVING SYSTEMS, New York: Mc Graw-Hill 1978, by James Grier Miller

This important, unique book presents an integrated, multi-disciplinary analysis of the nature of all biological and social systems. It also presents a master theory that creates order from a chaotic array of scientific findings and ‘mini theories’—within the unifying concepts of laws and testable hypotheses. Its purposes are:

  • To show that a general theory of living systems can be constructed.
  • To assemble facts (from many relevant researches) and reveal how they support a set of unifying scientific principles.
  • To point out gaps in current knowledge that need to be filled.
  • To present scientific methods for studying and comparing various

sorts of living systems.

Firmly grounded in current scientific knowledge, Living Systems shows how biological and social systems are organized and operate at each of seven hierarchical levels: cells, organs (composed of cells); organisms (independent life forms); groups (families, committees, working groups, etc.); organizations (communities, cities, corporations, universities, multinational corporations, etc.); societies or nations; and supranational systems. Since cells evolved, about three billion years ago, the general direction of evolution has been toward ever-greater complexity until about 4,500 years ago, when the most complex level, the supranational system, evolved.

This book offers a detailed analysis of the major aspects and characteristics encountered at all seven levels. For every level it identifies multiple variables of each of 19 matter-energy and information processing subsystems, normal and pathological states of these variables, and practical indicators for measuring changes in them. The book also specified cross-level formal identities among the levels and describes the artifacts, machines, or technologies employed at each level.

With examples ranging from a heart cell to the European Economic Community, the author shows how the interactions of matter-energy and information flows among systems at one level of living systems create the next higher level, a process he calls ‘shred-out.’ He clearly demonstrates the elegant unity of the world’s living and nonliving systems, as well as the feasibility of a unified science to study them.

Living Systems is intended to be read by the general public as well as by scientific specialists. It is therefore written in the ordinary prose read by intelligent nonexperts. If a fact is fundamental, it is included, no matter how elementary it may be to a specialist in a particular field. The complex division of labor in modern science requires this approach. So does understanding of science by the general public.

JAMES GRIER MILLER

Education

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 1937A.M. summa cum laude 1938A.M. 1939M.D. cum laude

1940Ph.D. in Psychology

Major Positions Held

1985- University of California at San Diego Adjunct Professor of Psychiatry

1981 University of California at Los Angeles Visiting Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences (1981-83) Adjunct Professor (1983-present)

1937-38 University of California at Santa Barbara Adjunct Professor of Psychology

1937-38 University of Louisville Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science; Professor of Psychology; President

1937-38 International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria: Fellow (summers)

1937-38 Johns Hopkins University Lecturer in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

1937-38 Cleveland State University Professor of Psychology; Vice President for Academic Affairs (1967-70); Provost (1970-71)

1937-38 University of Michigan, Mental Health Research Institute Director, Professor of Psychiatry; Professor of Psychology (1958-67); Senior Research Psychiatrist (1959-67)

1937-38 University of Chicago, Department of Psychology Professor and Chairman; Department of Medicine, Division of Psychiatry, Professor

(1948-51), Committee on Behavioral Sciences, Chairman (1952-55)

1937-38 Harvard University Assistant Professor of Social Relations (Clinical Psychology), on leave

1937-38 Veterans Administration Chief, Clinical Psychology Section, Central Office, Washington, D.C.

1937-38 United States Army Medical Corps (1st Lt. 1944-45, Captain 1945) Office of Strategic Services (OSS) Assessment Staff, Chief (1945)

1937-38 Massachusetts General Hospital Intern in Medicine (1942-43); Assistant Resident, Chief Resident, Chief Resident in Psychiatry (1943-44)

 1937-38 Harvard University      

Assistant in Psychiatry

1937-38 Harvard University and Radcliffe College Instructor in Psychology

1937-38Harvard University Society of Fellows, Junior Fellow

1937-38 Harvard University Assistant and Tutor in Psychology Memberships in Professional and Scientific Organizations

Fellow:American Association for the Advancement of Science American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (Charter Fellow) American College of Psychiatrists

American Psychiatric Association (Life Fellow) American Psychological Association, Division of General Psychology; Division of Clinical Psychology, President (1958-59); Division of Personality and Social Psychology

Diplomate:American Board of Neurology and Psychiatry: Diplomate in Psychiatry (1953) American Board of Examiners in Professional Psychology: Diplomate in Clinical Psychology (1950)

Member:American Psychological Association: Division of Psychopharmacology American Society for Cybernetics (Charter Member)

Argentine Scientific Society (Honorary Foreign Member) EDUCOM (Interuniversity Communications council): Co-Founder (1963); Executive Director and Secretary (1964-66); Vice President and Principal Scientist (1966-70); Board of Trustees (1970-81); Chairman of Board (1976); Trustee Emeritus (1981) Phi Beta Kappa Sigma Xi Society for General Systems Research (ISSS): Vice President (1972); Council of Distinguished Advisors (1972- ); President (1973)

International Consultancies

Government of Brazil: Consultant on education planning (1972-73) Government of El Salvador: Consultant on educational technology (1971-72) Governments of Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, South Vietnam, and Thailand: Lecturer on educational technology at INNOTECH (Singapore), joint research Institute of above countries (1972) United Nations, Geneva, Switzerland: Consultant on Behavioral Sciences (1962); Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), Consultant (1962); World Health Organization (WHO), Consultant

(1962) United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) in co-operation with United Nations Scientific and Cultural Institute on General Systems and Information Networks, University of California at Los Angeles: Lecturer on living systems theory (1977) Stockholm University: 100th Anniversary Jubilee. Invited lecturer on living systems theory (1978) Government of Argentina: The Scientific Society of Argentina and its Institute of Cybernetics, the Secretary of State for Sciences and Technology, and the National University of Buenos Aires. Invited lecturer on living systems theory (November 1979) Government of the Peoples Republic of China: The Academy of Science and its Institute of Systems

Science. Invited lecturer on living systems research in Beijing, Shanghai, and Changsha (August and September 1984).

Editorial Boards

Annual Review of Psychology:Editorial Board (1948-52)

Behavioral Science: Board of Editors, Member (1955-present); Editor-in-Chief (1967-present)

Etudes d’ Epistemologie Genetique, Jean Piaget (editor): Editorial Committee Member (1957-80)

The Information Society: Member, Advisory Board (1981-present) Scientific Offices and Committees

United States Public Health Service: National Institute of Mental Health, Training Panel (1946-47)

Planning Committee for Psychopharmacology Service Center (1954-56)

Special Consultant to the Surgeon General (1962-66)

National Institutes of Health, Division of General Medicine, Site Visit Committee (1963-66)

United States Department of Defense: Research and Development Board, Committee on Human Resources, Panel on Personnel and Training (1948-54) Illinois Psychological Association: Council Member (1949-52); President (1950-51) Illinois Psychiatric society: Council Member (1954-55)

National Academy of Sciences: Subcommittee on Stress (1955-57); Committee on Behavioral Sciences (1959-61) National Academy of Sciences—U.S. Department of State East/West Exchange Program: Chairman of Delegation of 10 U.S. behavioral scientists that visited the Soviet Union (1961) United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency: Behavioral Science Advisory Committee (1963-64) National Advisory Council on Vocational Rehabilitation (1967-71) United States Department of State, Agency for International Development: Consultant (1971-73) The White House, Special Action Office on Drug Abuse Prevention: Consultant (1971-73)

United States Army Science Board: Member (1980-82)

Lectureships

Lowell Institute, Boston: Lowell Lecturer on the Psychology of Reason and Belief (1943-44) Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Brunel Lecturer (1985) Washington University, St. Louis: Estelle Brodman Lecturer (1985)

Bibliography

Books:

Miller, J. G. Unconsciousness. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1942.

OSS Assessment Staff. Assessment of men. New York: Rinehart & Company, 1948.

Miller, J. G. (Ed.). Experiments in social process. New York: Mc Graw-Hill, 1950.

Miller, J. G. (Ed.). The pharmacology and clinical usefulness of carisoprodol. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1959.

Uhr, L. and J. G. Miller (Ed.). Drugs and behavior. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1960.

Brown, G. W., J. G. Miller & T. A. Keenan (Eds.). EDUNET: Report of the summer study on information networks. John Wiley & Sons, 1960.

Miller, J. G. Living systems. New York: Mc Graw-Hill, 1978.

Swanson, G. A. & J. G. Miller. Measurement and interpretations in accounting: a living systems theory approach. New York: Quorum Books, 1989.

Papers (through 1985):

Miller, J. G. Whitehead: History in the grand manner. Part I. Harvard Guardian, 1937 1 (2), 23-29.

_. Whitehead: History in the grand manner. Part II. Harvard Guardian, 1937, 1(2), 25-30.

_. Discrimination without awareness. Amer. J. Psychol., 1939, 52, 562-578.

_. Symbolic technique in psychological theory. Psychol. Rev., 1939, 46, 464-479.

_. The role of motivation in learning without awareness. Amer. J. Psychol., 1940, 53, 229-239.

Sterling, K. & J. G. Miller. The effect of hypnosis upon visual and auditory acuity. Amer. J. Psychol., 1940, 53, 269-276.

_. Conditioning under anesthesia. Amer. J. Psychol., 1941, 54, 92-101.

_. The development of conditioning in anesthetized cats. Current Researches in Anesthesia and Analgesia, 1944, 23, 89-94.

Miller, J. B. A protestant confessional. Church Militant, 1944, 46, 3-5.

_. Clinical psychology in the veterans administration. Amer. Psychologist, 1946, 1, 181-189.

_. Introduction. Symposium: The Veterans Administration and Clinical Psychology. J. Clin. Psychol., 1947, 3, 103.

_. Elements in the medical curriculum which should be incorporated in the training of the clinical psychologist. In M. R. Harrower (Ed.). Training in Clinical Psychology. New York: Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation, 1947, 41-46. Reprinted in J. Clinical Psychol., Monograph Suppl., 1948, 3, 41-46.

_. The mutual dependency of professional training in psychology and psychiatry. Amer. J. Psychiat., 1948, 105, 116-123.

_. Future training in clinical psychology. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 1948, 49, 913-928.

_. Psychological approaches to the prevention of war. In W. Dennis (Ed.). Current Trends in Social Psychology. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1948, 274-299.

_. Forward to S. J. Beck’s Rorschach’s Test. Second edition, revised. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1949, ix.

_. Mental hygiene for the counselor. J. Natl. Assn. Deans of Women, 1949, 12, 51-58.

Miller, J. G. and R. F. W. Smith. Research on word frequencies in schizophrenia, reported by G. K. Zipf in Human behavior and the principle of least effort. Cambridge: Addison-Wesley Press, 1949, 292-296.

Miller, J. G. Contributions of the sciences of man to keeping the peace. In R. M. Hutchins, R. West, W. G. Katz, M. Sharp, and J. G. Miller Reflections on law, psychology, and world government. Univer. Chicago Law Rev., 1949, 16, 413-416.

_. The experimental study of unconscious processes. In M. L Reymert (Ed.). Feelings and emotions: The Mooseheart Symposium. New York: Mc Graw-Hill, 1950, 261-267.

_. Contemporary trends in psychodiagnosis. In M. R. Harrower (Ed.). Recent advances in diagnostic psychological testing. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1950, 3-12.

_. The implications of psychoanalytic theory for the evaluation of psychotherapy. Psychol. Serv. Center J., 1950, 2, 123-129.

_. Unconscious. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1951, 22, 681.

_. Unconscious processes and perception. In R. R. Blake and G. V. Ramsey (Eds.). Perception: An approach to personality. New York: Ronald Press, 1951, 258-282.

_. Objective methods of evaluating process and outcome in psychotherapy. Amer. J. Psychiat., 1951, 108, 258-263.

Miller, J. G., L. Bouthilet & C. Eldridge. A bibliography for the development of stress-sensitive tests. Technical Research Note 22. Washington, D.C.: Psychol. Res. Assoc., 1953.

Miller, J. G. The development of experimental stress-sensititive tests for predicting performance in military tasks. Report 1079. Washington, D.C.: Psychol. Res. Assoc., 1953.

. Introduction Symposium: Profits and problems of homeostatic models in the behavioral sciences. Chicago: Chicago Behav. Sci. Pub., 1953, 1, 1-11.

_. A Science of Human Behavior. Univ. of Chicago Round Table, October 11, 1953, No. 809.

_. Hope chest. (Letter to Editor). Science, 1953, 118417-418.

_. Criteria and measurement of change during psychiatric treatment. Bull. Minn. Clin., 1954, 18, 130-137.

_. Toward a general theory for the behavioral sciences. American Psychol., 1955, 10, 513-531. Reprinted in L. D. White (Ed.). The State of the Social Sciences. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1956, 29-65.

_. Criteria of change in the patient during psychiatric treatment and the measurement of change. Amer. J. Psychiat., 1955, 112, 289-290. (Abstract).

Miller, J. G. and the Board of Editors. Editorial: Behavioral Science, a new journal. Behavioral Science, 1956, 1, 1-5.

Miller, J. G. Chairman. Proceedings of Closed Panel Conference on ‘Miltown’ Under the Auspices of Wallace Laboratories. February 1956.

The following three symposia were arranged by the Committee on Psychopathology, James G. Miller, Chairman, for the Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry:

Illustrative Strategies for Research on Psychopathology in Mental Health. Symposium No. 2. New York: Group for Advancement of Psychiatry, June 1956, 5-43.

Factors Used to Increase the Susceptibility of Individuals to Forceful Indoctrination: Observations and Experiments. Symposium No. 3. New York: Group for Advancement of Psychiatry, December 1956.

Methods of forceful indoctrination: Observations and interviews. Symposium No. 4. New York: Group for Advancement of Psychiatry, July 1957, 294-296.

Miller, J. G. and Committee on Behavioral Sciences. Round table discussions on behavior theory. The cost of decision making. Behav. Sci., 1956, 1, 69-78.

_. General behavior systems theory and summary. J. Counsel. Psychol., 1956, 3, 120-124. Translated into Japanese in Counseling. Tokyo: Seishin, 1962, 401-411.

_. Applications to social work of a general behavior theory. In Proceedings of the 1956 Social Work Progress Institute. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1956, 60-75.

_. Mental health implications of a general behavior theory. Amer. J. Psychiat., 1957, 113, 776-782.

Marquis, D. G., E. L. Kelly , J. G. Miller, R. W. Gerard, & A. Rapoport. Experimental studies of behavioral effects of meprobamate on normal subjects. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 1957, 67, 701-711.

Miller, J. G. Special problems of psychotherapy. In J. H. Masserman and J. L. Moreno (Eds.). Progress in Psychotherapy II. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1957, 188-196.

John, E. R. and J. G. Miller. The acquisition and application of information in the problem-solving process: an electronically operated logical test. Behav. Sci., 1957, 2, 291-300.

Miller, J. G. Dreams. Am. Peoples Encyclopedia, 1957, 7, 325-328.

_. Behavioral science and packaging. In Handbook and Proceedings of the First Annual Package Research Conference. New York: Lippincott & Margulies, 1957.

_. Research into the behavior of hierarchical systems. In Research Frontiers I: Industry and the Human Being in an Automized World. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press, 1957, 11-20.

_. Brainwashing: present and future. J. Soc. Issues, 1957, 13, 48-55.

Kelly, E. L., J. G. Miller, D. G. Marquis, R. W. Gerard, & L. Uhr. Personality differences and continued meprobamate and proclorperazine administration. A.M.A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat., 1958, 80, 241-246.

_. Continued meprobamate and proclorperazine administration and behavior. A.M.A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat., 1958, 80, 247-252.

Smith, G. W. J., L. Uhr, J. C. Pollard & J. G. Miller. An exploratory study of the behavioral effects of Suavitil (benactyzine hydrochloride). Univ. Mich. Med. Bull., 1958, 24, 402-407.

Miller, J. G. Psychology. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1958, 18, 682-690.

_. Psychoanalysis and systems theory. In J. H. Masserman (Ed.), Science and Psychoanalysis I: Integrative Studies. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1958, 109-125.

Miller, J. G. & Committee. National support for behavioral science. Behav. Sci., 1958, 3, 217-227.

Rapoport, A. & J. G. Miller. Two heads better than one’ Comment on editorial in Science, 1958, 127, 933. Behav. Sci., 1958, 3, 356-359.

Miller, J. G. Consultant and discussion. In J. O. Cole and R. W. Gerard (Eds.). Psychopharmacology: Problems in evaluation. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences—National Research Council, 1959, 393, 395, 397, 406-409, 418, 419, 444-446.

_. Future impact of psychological theory on personality assessments. In B. M. Bass and I. A. Berg (Ed.). Objective approaches to personality assessment. Princeton: D. Van Nostrand, 1959, 204-216.

_. Can we have a general theory of behaving systems’ In Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of Psychology, Brussels, 1959. Amsterdam: North Holland, 1959, 85-86. (Abstract)

Uhr, L., J. C. Pollard & J. G. Miller. Behavioral effects of chronic administration of psychoactive drugs to anxious patients. Psychopharmacologica, 1959, 1, 150-168.

Miller, J. g. & L. Uhr. An experimental study of the behavioral effects of carbethoxysyringoyl methylreserpate (Singoserp). Toxicol. & Appl. Pharmacol., 1959, 1, 534-544.

Korst, D. R., R. W. Gerard, J. G. Miller, I. F. Small, I. J. Graham & E. I. Winkelman. Evaluation of carisoprodol in hospitalized patients with psychoses, arthritis, and neurologic disorders. In J. G. Miller (Ed.), The pharmacology and clinical usefulness of carisoprodol. Detroit: Wayne State Univ. Press, 1959, 104-114.

Miller, J. G. Information input overload and psychopathology. Amer. J. Psychiat., 1960, 116, 695-704.

Uhr, L. & J. G. Miller. Behavioral toxicity of emylcamate (Striatran). Amer. J. Med. Sci., 1960, 240, 197-203.

_. Experimentally determined effects of emylcamate (Striatran) on performance, autonomic response, and subjective reactions under stress. Amer. J. Med. Sci., 1960, 240, 204-212.

Miller, J. G. Drugs and human information processing: Perception, cognition, and response. In L. Uhr and J. G. Miller (Ed.s). Drugs and Behavior. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1960, 335-351.

Miller, J. G. & L. Uhr. Behavioral toxicity as measured by tests of simulated driving and of vision. In L. Uhr and J. G. Miller (Eds.). Drugs and Behavior. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1960, 326-329.

Miller, J. G. Know the behavioral sciences. J. Home Econ., 1960, 52, 327-330.

Platz, A. J. Uhr & J. G. Miller. A pilot experiment on the effects of meprobamate on stereoscopic retinal rivalry of complementary colors. Percept. & Motor Skills, 1960, 10, 230.

Uhr, L. A. Platz, J. G. Miller. A pilot experiment on the effects of meprobamate and of prochlorperazine on tests of cognition and perception. Percept.& Motor Skills, 1960, 11, 90.

Platz, A., J. C. Pollard & J. G. Miller. Psychological assessment of dihydrogenated ergot derivatives in the treatment of senility. Univ. Mich. Med. Bull., 1960, 26, 354-356.

Uhr, L. & J. G. Miller. An experimental study of the behavioral effects of isothipendyl hydrochloride (theruhistin). Acta Allergologica, 1961, 16, 141-150.

Uhr, L., M. Clay, A. Platz, J. G. Miller & E. L. Kelly. Effects of meprobamate and of prochlorperazine on positive and negative conditioning. J. Abnorm. & Soc. Psychol., 1961, 63, 546-551.

Miller, J. G. The individual response to drugs. In S. M. Farber and R. H. L. Wilson (Eds.). Man and civilization: Control of the mind. New York: Mc Graw-Hill, 1961, 92-109. Reprinted in Am. Behav. Sci., 1962, 5, 3-10; and in Voice of America Forum Lectures, Control of the Mind Series: No. 8. 1963.

_. General systems behavior theory. In Characteristics of adaptive systems theory. Fourth Annual Research Conference. Lansing, Michigan: Mich. Dept. Mental Health, 1961, 9-28.

Horvath, W. J., P. Halick, B. Peretz & J. G. Miller. Precision measurements of latency and the variability of latency in single nerve fibers. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Medical Electronics. New York: IRE, 1961, 79 (Abstract).

Miller, J. G. Sensory overloading. In B. E. Flaherty (Ed.). Psychophysiological aspects of space flight. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1961, 215-224.

_. The golden adventure book of the human mind. New York: Capitol, 1962.

_. Question and answer adventures, the human mind. New York: Capitol, 1962.

_. A state research institute for mental health. Psychiat. Res. Reports, 1962, 15, April, 8-16.

_. Information input overload. In M. C. Yovits, G. T. Jacobi and G. D. Goldstein (Eds.). Self- organizing systems 1962. Washington, D.C.: Spartan Books, 1962, 61-78.

_. Objective measurements of the effects of drugs on driver behavior. JAMA, 1962, 179, 940-943.

Miller, J. L. & J. G. Miller. Behavioral scientists visit the Soviet Union. Behav. Sci., 1962, 7, 3-36.

Miller, J. G. General chairman. Symposium on newer psychotropic drugs and human behavior. J. Neuropsychiat. 1962, 3, Suppl. 1, August.

Harlow, H. F., J. g. Miller & T. M. Newcomb. Identifying creative talent in psychology. Am. Psychol., 1962, 17, 679-683.

Miller, J. G. The individual as an information processing system. In W. S. Fields and W. Abbott (Eds.). Information storage and neural control. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1963, 301-328.

Uhr, L., A. Platz & J. G. Miller. Time and dosage effects of meprobamate on simple behavioral tasks. J. Gen. Psychol., 1963, 68, 317-323.

Miller, J. G. Some implications of communication theory for higher education. Curr. Issues in High. Ed., 1963, 237-240.

_. Advances in medicine, psychiatry within the Soviet Union. J. Am. Coll. Neuropsychiatrists, 1963, 2, 24-38.

Uhr, L., A. Platz, S. S. Fox & J. G. Miller. Effects of meprobamate on continuous attention behavior. J. Gen. Psychol., 1964, 70, 51-57.

Miller, J. G. The information explosion: Implications for teaching. J. Natl. Assn. Women Deans & Coun., 1964, 27, 54-59.

Platz, A., L. Uhr, M. Clay, J. G. Miller & A. B. Kristofferson. Time and dosage effects of meprobamate on visual detection. Psychopharmacologia, 1964, 6, 42-48.

Miller, J. G. Psychological aspects of communication overloads. In R. W. Waggoner and D. J. Carek (Eds.). International psychiatry clinics: Communication in clinical practice. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1964, 201-224.

_. Adjusting to overloads of information. In D. Mc K. Rioch and E. A. Weinstein (Eds.). Disorders of communication. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1964, 87-100. Reprinted in W. C. Howell and I. L. Goldstein (Eds.). Engineering psychology: Current perspectives in research. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1971, 574-583.

_. Medical and social aspects of anxiety. J. Neuropsychiat., 1964, 5, 389-395 and 423-427.

Harlow, H. F., J. G. Miller & T. M. Newcomb. The second annual creative talent awards program in psychology. Amer. Psychol., 1964, 19, 355-357.

Miller, J. G. Coping with administrators’ information overload. In R. M. Bucher and L. Powers (Eds.) First institute on medical school administration. Report of the 11th A.A.M.C. Institute, Atlanta, Georgia, October 5-8, 1963. Evanston, IL: Association of American Medical Colleges, 1964, 47-54 and 182-189. Also published in J. Med. Ed., 1964, 39, 11, Part 2, 47-54 and 182-189.

_. Psychiatric research. In Proceedings of Congress on mental illness and health. Detroit: Michigan State Medical Society, 1964, June 26, 3-6.

_. A theoretical review of individual and group psychological reactions to stress. In G. H. Grosser, H. Wechsler and M. Greenblatt (Eds.). The threat of impending disaster. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1964, 11-33.

_. The dynamics of informational adjustment processes. In J. H. Masserman (Ed.). Science and psychoanalysis, VIII: Communication and community. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1965, 38-48.

_. Living systems: Basic concepts. Behav. Sci., 1965, 10, 193-237. Reprinted in modified form in W. Gray, F. J. Duhl and N. D. Rizzo (Eds.). General systems theory and psychiatry. Boston: Little, Brown & Company, 1969, 51-133.

_. Living systems: Structure and process. Behav. Sci., 1965, 10, 337-379.

_. Living systems: Cross-level hypotheses. Behav. Sci., 1965, 10, 380-411. Numbers 100-102 Translated as follows: into Polish in Prakseologia, Warsaw, 1969, and into Italian by Franco Angeli Editore, Milan, 1971.

_. The organization of life. Perspectives Biol. & Med., 1965, 9, 107-125. (Festschrift for R. W. Gerard)

_. Programmed instruction and information theory: Significance for medical education. In J. P. Lysaught, C. D. Sherman, Jr., and H. Jason (Eds.). Programmed instruction in medical education. Proceedings of the First Rochester Conference, June 1964. Rochester: The Rochester Clearinghouse for Information on Self-Instruction in Medical Education, 1965, 127-135.

_. Role of communications. In Proceedings of the White House Conference on Health. November 1965. Washington, D. C.: GPO, 1965, 253-275.

_. A health sciences information center—and how a university might design its own. EDUCOM, 1966, 1, 6, 1-9.

_. EDUCOM: Interuniversity Communications Council. Science, 1966, 154, 483-488.

Burns, J. T., R. F. House, F. C. Fensch & J. G. Miller. Effects of magnesium pemoline and dextroamphetamine on human learning. Science, 1967, 155, 849-851.

Miller, J. G. Design for a university health sciences information center. J. Med. Ed., 1967, 42, 404-429.

_. Administration—top-level information flow. In R. W. Gerard (Ed.). Computers and education. New York: Mc Graw-Hill, 1967, 229-273.

_. Potentialities of a multi-media, inter-university educational network. In A. deReuck and J. Knight (Eds.), CIBA Foundation symposium on communication in science: Documentation and automation. London: J. & A. Churchill Ltd., 1967, 235-252.

_. The pros and cons of cooperative education. In A report on the All-Ohio conference on cooperative education: Higher education in partnership with a productive society. May 1967. Cleveland: Cleveland State Univ. Press, 1968, 3-6.

_. The university as a living, information-processing system. In Architecture and the college: Presentations from the 1967 conference. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois, Department of Architecture, 1967, 9-24.

_. EDUCOM—A progress report. In Proceedings of conference on the use of computers in medical education. April 1968. Oklahoma City: Univ. of Oklahoma Medical Center, 1968, 28-36.

_. Computer-based and computer-planned continuing medical education for the future. JAMA, 1968, 206, 621-624.

_. EDUNET: The proposed EDUCOM interuniversity network. In E. R. Gabrieli (Ed.). Planning a health information system. Buffalo: SUNY, Department of Social Medicine, 1968, 47-49.

Miller, J. G., L. W. Martin & M. Cullen. A proposal for a College of Health at Cleveland State University to the Ohio Board of Regents. Cleveland: Cleveland State University, December 1969.

Papers numbered 119-123 were written for the Commission on Instructional Technology as background papers for their report, To Improve Learning, a Report to the President and the Congress of the United States, March 1970. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1970.

Miller, J. G. The nature of living systems. In S. G. Tickton (Ed.). To improve learning: An evaluation of instructional technology. Vol. 2. New York: Bowker, 1971, 241-270.

_. The living systems involved in the educational process. In S. G. Tickton (Ed.). To improve learning: An evaluation of instructional technology. Vol. 2. New York: Bowker, 1971, 261-260.

_. A ten-year program for developing, evaluating and implementing instructional technologies. In S. G. Tickton (Ed.). To improve learning: An evaluation of instructional technology. Vol. 2. New York: Bowker, 1971, 271-279.

_. Deciding whether and how to use educational technology in the light of cost-effectiveness evaluation. N S. G. Tickton (Ed.). To improve learning: An evaluation of instructional technology. Vol. 2. New York: Bowker, 1971, 1007-1027.

Miller, J. G. & G. J. Rath. Planning-programming-budgeting and cost-effectiveness analysis in educational systems. In S. G. Tickton (Ed.). To improve learning: An evaluation of instructional technology. Vol. 2, New York: Bowker, 1971, 1029-1059.

Miller, J. G. The computer, its function and place in modern society. In G. W. Holmes and C. H. Norville (Eds.). The law of computers. Ann Arbor: Institute of Continuing Legal Education, 1971, 1-16.

_. The nature of living systems. Behavioral Science, 1971, 16 , 277-301. Reprinted in modified form in:

Living systems. The nature of living systems. Currents in Mod. Biol., 1971, 4, 55-77.

Living systems. The nature of living systems. Quart. Rev. Biol., 1973, 48(2), 63-91.

The nature of living systems. Behav. Sci., 1975, 20, 343-365.

The nature of living systems. Behav. Sci., 1976, 21, 295-319.

The nature of living systems—an overview. In Interdisciplinary aspects of general systems theory. Proceedings of the third annual meeting of the Middle Atlantic Regional Division. September 1974. Washington, D.C.: Society for General Systems Research, 1975, 1-23.

_. Living systems: The group. Behav. Sci., 1971, 16, 302-398.

_. Living systems. The cell. Currents in mod. Biol., 1971, 4, 78-206.

_. Living systems. The organ. Currents in mod. Biol., 1971, 4, 207-256.

_. Living systems: The organization. Behav. Sci., 1972, 17, 1-182.

_. The emergence of biological and behavioral patterns. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 1972, 193, 281-285, Discussion, 286-290.

_. EDUNET. Encyclopedia Library Infor. Sci., 1972, 7, 564-569.

_. Research and development priorities in instructional technologies for the less developed countries. Washington, D.C.: Academy for Educational Development, 1973. (Prepared for the Academy for Educational Development under contract with the Bureau for Technical Assistance of the U.S. Agency for International Development: Contract 2829.)

_. Alternative strategies for the use of instructional technologies in less developed countries. Washington, D.C.: Academy for Educational Development, 1973. (Prepared for the Academy for Educational Development under contract with the Bureau for Technical Assistance of the U.S. Agency for International Development: Contract 2829.)

_. Living systems: The organism. Quart. Rev. Biol., 1973, 48 (2), 92-276.

_. W. Ross Ashby. Behav. Sci., 1973, 18, 1.

_. Fowler Mc Cormick. Behav. Sci., 1973, 18, 160-161.

_. Excerpts from memorial service for Donald G. Marquis at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, February 26, 1973. Behav. Sci., 1973, 18, 234-241.

_. The uses of a university. (An address on the occasion of the ceremony introducing him as President of the University of Louisville, October 5, 1973.)

_. Second annual Ludwig von Bertalanffy memorial lecture. In Systems thinking and the quality of life. Proceedings of the 1975 Annual North American Meeting, January 1975. Washington, D.C.: Society for General Systems Research, 1975, 80-160. Reprinted in Behav. Sci., 1976, 21, 219-227.

Gerard, F. (Leona Bachrach), J. G. Miller & A. Rapoport, A. Editorial. Ralph Waldo Gerard. Behav. Sci., 1975, 20, 1-8.

Miller, J. B. Living systems: The society. Behav. Sci., 1975, 20, 366-535.

_. General systems theory. In A. M. Freedman, H. I. Kaplan, & B. J. Sadock (Eds.). Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry—II. Second edition. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1975, 75-88. Reprinted in abbreviated form in A. M. Freedman, H. I Kaplan, and B. J. Sadock (Eds.). Modern synopsis of comprehensive textbook of psychiatry—II. Illustrated education. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1976, 41-46. (Paperback).

_. Living systems: The supranational system. Behav. Sci., 1976, 21, 320-468.

_. Potential applications of a general theory of living systems to the study of military tactical command and control. In R. M. Thrall, C. P. Tsokos, and J. C. Turner (Eds.). Proceedings of the workshop on decision information for tactical command and control. September 1976. Houston: R. M. Thrall & Assoc., 1976, 47-53. (Paperback).

_. Editorial. Recognition of Herbert A. Simon and other systems scientists. Behav. Sci., 1978, 23, 420.

Miller, J. G. and B. J. Jones. Alteration of information in channels: A cross-level analysis. In J. Rose (Ed.). Proceedings of the fourth international congress of cybernetics and systems. Amsterdam, August 1978. World Organization of General Systems and Cybernetics. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 1978, 277-278. (Abstract)

Reprinted in R. F. Geyer and J. van der Zouwen (Eds.). Sociocybernetics. Vol. 2, Leiden, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Social Science Division, 1978.

_. The use of a living systems paradigm for need assessment. Presented at the second national conference on need assessment in health and human services, Louisville, Kentucky, March 30, 1978.

_. General systems as it effects system design. In A. Debons. Proceedings of third NATO advanced study institute in the information sciences, Chania, Crete, August 1978.

. Matter-energy and information processing in military and other living systems. In A. Debons Proceedings of third NATO advanced study institute in the information sciences, Chania, Crete, August 1978.

_. Systems science and psychiatry. Presented in the Distinguished Psychiatrist Series at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, Chicago, Illinois, May 14, 1979.

_. Response to the reviewers of Living systems. Contemp. Sociol., 1979, 8, 705-715.

_. Margaret Mead 1904-1978. Behav. Sci., 1980, 25, 1-8.

_. Response to reviews of Living systems. Behav. Sci., 1980, 25, 65-87.

_. General living systems theory. In H. I Kaplan, A. M. Freedman & B. J. Sadock (Eds.). Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry—III. Third edition. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1980, 98-114.

Miller, J. G. & J. L. Miller. The family as a system. In C. K. Hofling and J. M. Lewis (Eds.). The family: Evaluation and treatment. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1980, 141-184.

Miller, J. G. The Center’s tradition. The Center magazine, 1981, 14, Sept./Oct., 2-4.

Miller, J. G. & J. L. Miller. Systems science: An emerging interdisciplinary field. The Center magazine, 1981, 14, Sept./Oct., 44-55.

_. The earth as a system. Behav. Sci., 1982, 27, 303-322. Reprinted in J. Richardson (Ed.). Models of reality: Shaping thought and action. Mt. Airy, MD: Lomond Books, 1984, 19-49.

_. General living systems theory and small groups. In H. I Kaplan and B. J. Sadock (Eds.). Comprehensive group psychotherapy. Second edition. Baltimore: Willliams & Wilkins, 1983, 33-47.

_. Applications of living systems theory to conjoint therapy. In M. H. Greenhill and A. Gralnick (Eds.). Psychopharmacology and psychotherapy. New York: Free Press, 1983, 21-35.

Miller, J. G. Matter-energy and information processing in military and other living systems. In A. Debons (Ed.). Information science in action: System design. Vol. I. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1983, 138-140.

_. Einleitung und Vortrag. In G. Guntern (Ed.). Die Welt, ein schwingendes Gewebe. Brig, Switzerland: Institute for Systems Science Oberwallis, 1984, 9-56.

Miller, J. G. & J. L. Miller. General living systems theory. In H. I. Kaplan and B.J. Sadock (Eds.). Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry/IV. Vol. I. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1985, 13-24.

Ruscoe, G. C., R. L. Fell, K. T. Hunt, S. L. Merker, L. R. Peter, Maj. J.S. Cary, J. G. Miller, Capt. B. G. Loo, Capt. R. W. Reed & Capt. M. I. Sturm. The application of living systems theory to 41 U.S. Army battalions. Behav. Sci., 1985, 30, 3-55.

Miller, J. G. Living systems research and the University of the World. Opening address. In Proceedings of the Ninth IBM University Study Conference—1984. Milford, CT: IBM Academic Information Systems, Special Studies Department, 1985, 55-86.

_. General living systems theory. In Psychiatry: The state of the art. Vol. 2: Biological psychiatry, higher nervous activity. New York: Plenum Publishing Corp., 1985, 673-678.

_. Systems science and education in the year 2000. Presented at Mankind 2000: An international conference on human adaptation to change. University of Haifa, Israel, April 2, 1982. Haifa: Multimedia Publications.

_. General living systems research and applications. Proceedings U.S. Army Systems Science Conference, December 8, 1983.

Miller, J. G. & J. L Miller. A living systems analysis of organizational pathology Behavioral Science Vol. 36, No. 4 (October 1991), pp. 239-252.

Miller, J. G. & J. L. Miller. Introduction: The nature of living systems. Behavioral Science Vol.35, No.3 (July

1990), pp.157-163.

Miller, J. L. The timer. Behavioral Science Vol.35, No. 3 (July 1990), pp. 164-196.

Miller, J. L. & J. G. Miller. Greater than the sum of its parts – 1. Subsystems which process both matter-energy and information. Behavioral Science Vol. 37, No. 1 (January 1992), pp. 1- 38.

 
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