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primer_2.0 [2007/09/23 22:20]
205.188.117.136
primer_2.0 [2012/06/19 21:40]
TOM_MANDEL
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-==== Primer 2.0 ==== 
  
-=SYSTEMS THEORYis a transdisciplinary and multiperspective scientific inquiry that studies structure and properties in terms of their interrelationships. Ervin Laszlo contrasts the system model with the Classical science model of reductionism as a shifting of emphasis from parts to the organization of parts; from the "​component to the dynamic"​ as he puts it. Erich Jantsch writes, "Quite generally, a system becomes observable and definable through its interactions. <​ref>​Jantsch E (1980) The Self-Organizing-Universe. Pergamon Press</​ref>​ They emphasize that it is through these mutually interactive relationships that new properties of the whole emerge. Bela H Banathy regards this observation to be the "​value"​ of systems theory; as this new whole has properties which are not found in the constituent elements. "We cannot understand the whole bit by bit" he explains.[1] <!--(See Note 1:) -->+==== SYSTEM STUDIES ==== 
 + 
 +SYSTEMS THEORY/​SCIENCE/​THINKING/​APPROACH/​METHODOLOGY ​is a transdisciplinary and multiperspective scientific inquiry that studies structure and properties in terms of their interrelationships. Ervin Laszlo contrasts the system model with the Classical science model of reductionism as a shifting of emphasis from parts to the organization of parts; from the "​component to the dynamic"​ as he puts it. Erich Jantsch writes, "Quite generally, a system becomes observable and definable through its interactions. <​ref>​Jantsch E (1980) The Self-Organizing-Universe. Pergamon Press</​ref>​ They emphasize that it is through these mutually interactive relationships that new properties of the whole emerge. Bela H Banathy regards this observation to be the "​value"​ of systems theory; as this new whole has properties which are not found in the constituent elements. "We cannot understand the whole bit by bit" he explains.[1] <!--(See Note 1:) -->
  
  
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-Ancient History+ANCIENT HISTORY
  
 The development of the integrative systems model is traced by Bertalanffy to the 1600's in the binary numbering system of G.W. von Leibniz and the Coincidentia Oppositorum model by Nicholas of Cusa. System principles can be traced even further back, to Aristotle'​s "whole is greater than the sum of the parts" and even the I Ching and Yin/Yang. It can be perceived in Lao Tzu's ''​Harmony of opposites'';​ Heraclitus'​ ''​Epistemology of Fluxation & unified opposites'';​ the ''​Water/​Air/​Fire/​Earth''​ philosophy of Epedocleus; Spinoza'​s ''​Philosophy of the whole'';​ Bergson'​s ''​Process''​ and in particular Needham & Woodger'​s ''​organizing relations'',​ and many others. The mathematics of complex systems, greatly aided  by advances made possible by the computer, has emerged as ''​complexity science.''​ Systems theory compares, in mathematics,​ to Category Theory. The development of the integrative systems model is traced by Bertalanffy to the 1600's in the binary numbering system of G.W. von Leibniz and the Coincidentia Oppositorum model by Nicholas of Cusa. System principles can be traced even further back, to Aristotle'​s "whole is greater than the sum of the parts" and even the I Ching and Yin/Yang. It can be perceived in Lao Tzu's ''​Harmony of opposites'';​ Heraclitus'​ ''​Epistemology of Fluxation & unified opposites'';​ the ''​Water/​Air/​Fire/​Earth''​ philosophy of Epedocleus; Spinoza'​s ''​Philosophy of the whole'';​ Bergson'​s ''​Process''​ and in particular Needham & Woodger'​s ''​organizing relations'',​ and many others. The mathematics of complex systems, greatly aided  by advances made possible by the computer, has emerged as ''​complexity science.''​ Systems theory compares, in mathematics,​ to Category Theory.
  
-Modern history+MODERN HISTORY
  
 Modern systems theory emerged on two ''​complementary''​ fronts: Systems Theory and [[Cybernetics]]. ​ Modern systems theory emerged on two ''​complementary''​ fronts: Systems Theory and [[Cybernetics]]. ​
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 Cybernetics arose parallel to systems theory mainly through the work of mathematician Norbert Wiener. During World War 11, Norbert Wiener was called on to resolve the technical problem of matching aircraft velocity with anti-aircraft shell velocity. Recognizing the advantages of ''​looking at all sides of the problem,''​ he went on to formulate Cybernetics,​ a science of control and information,​with an emphasis on the particular relationship of feedback, during the Macy conferences. Systems theory and cybernetics are closely related to eachother. Cybernetics arose parallel to systems theory mainly through the work of mathematician Norbert Wiener. During World War 11, Norbert Wiener was called on to resolve the technical problem of matching aircraft velocity with anti-aircraft shell velocity. Recognizing the advantages of ''​looking at all sides of the problem,''​ he went on to formulate Cybernetics,​ a science of control and information,​with an emphasis on the particular relationship of feedback, during the Macy conferences. Systems theory and cybernetics are closely related to eachother.
  
-Operations Research+OPERATIONS RESEARCH
 Operations Research became famous when it worked out an optimal size for convoys transversing the seas during WW2. It can be traced back to British achievements learned while maintaining world-wide colonys. Early system research began as Operations Research and Systems Analysis. Operations Research (O.R.)is defined broadly by St. Beer, "​Operations research is the attack of of modern science on complex problems arising in the direction and management of enterprises."​ R. Ackoff describes O.R as a methodology beginning with an analysis of desired outcomes and objectives of the organization. Using tools such as linear programming and computer simulations,​ theories such as allocation, queing, sequencing, routing, replacement,​ competitive and search theories, models depicting behavior and performance are equated to functions under management control. Recent advances such as chaos theory has shown prediction can never be accurate and attempts to further this field of research led to little more than mathematical modeling, arguably what it was intended for in the first place. <​ref>​Francois C (1997) Editor; ''​International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics'':​ K.G.Saur (p. 252)ISBN 3-598-11357-9</​ref>​ Operations Research became famous when it worked out an optimal size for convoys transversing the seas during WW2. It can be traced back to British achievements learned while maintaining world-wide colonys. Early system research began as Operations Research and Systems Analysis. Operations Research (O.R.)is defined broadly by St. Beer, "​Operations research is the attack of of modern science on complex problems arising in the direction and management of enterprises."​ R. Ackoff describes O.R as a methodology beginning with an analysis of desired outcomes and objectives of the organization. Using tools such as linear programming and computer simulations,​ theories such as allocation, queing, sequencing, routing, replacement,​ competitive and search theories, models depicting behavior and performance are equated to functions under management control. Recent advances such as chaos theory has shown prediction can never be accurate and attempts to further this field of research led to little more than mathematical modeling, arguably what it was intended for in the first place. <​ref>​Francois C (1997) Editor; ''​International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics'':​ K.G.Saur (p. 252)ISBN 3-598-11357-9</​ref>​
  
 In the sixties considerable effort was made to transfer principles to the social domain. Further developments emerged in the work of Andrew Sage and Arthur Hall. When  "​hard"​ systems approaches failed to achieve goals in the social domain, "​soft"​ systems emerged with Peter Checkland'​s ​ Soft System Methodology (SSM) which was enhanced by Jackson'​s Critical Systems, Ulrich'​s Critical Heuristics and Flood'​s Total Systems Intervention. In the sixties considerable effort was made to transfer principles to the social domain. Further developments emerged in the work of Andrew Sage and Arthur Hall. When  "​hard"​ systems approaches failed to achieve goals in the social domain, "​soft"​ systems emerged with Peter Checkland'​s ​ Soft System Methodology (SSM) which was enhanced by Jackson'​s Critical Systems, Ulrich'​s Critical Heuristics and Flood'​s Total Systems Intervention.
  
-Systems Engineering+SYSTEMS RESEARCH
  
 Following World War 2, [[systems engineering]] was developed to address the design, implementation and operation of large, complex technical systems. Along with it's sister disciplines:​ systems analysis and operations research, systems engineering flourished during the 50's and 60'​s. ​ While it served well as a unitary problem solving tool where objectives and procedures are well defined and easy to agree on, management science and system thinking communities ​ characterized it in the 70'​s ​ as a hard systems approach because it derived its philosophical base from the hard sciences. ​ Systems engineering emphasis is on the achievement of objectively stated goals related to the delivery of technical products appropriate for solving mechanical-unitary problems.  ​ Following World War 2, [[systems engineering]] was developed to address the design, implementation and operation of large, complex technical systems. Along with it's sister disciplines:​ systems analysis and operations research, systems engineering flourished during the 50's and 60'​s. ​ While it served well as a unitary problem solving tool where objectives and procedures are well defined and easy to agree on, management science and system thinking communities ​ characterized it in the 70'​s ​ as a hard systems approach because it derived its philosophical base from the hard sciences. ​ Systems engineering emphasis is on the achievement of objectively stated goals related to the delivery of technical products appropriate for solving mechanical-unitary problems.  ​
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 In the research paper published in the IFSR journal: Systems Research Behavior Science, Cook and Ferris argue, "​...that,​ as such, systems engineering is an appropriate methodology for any problem situation where the solution can be expected to involve a substantial technical component."​ They  contend that systems engineering is really a transdisciplinary metamethodology because of the use of many methodologies. They also believe that Systems engineering "​...should be recognized within the Total Systems Intervention framework as the appropriate methodology to address issues in any category sector of the matrix. where it is anticipated that the solution is likely to involve design of something involving a substantial amount of technology. In turn systems engineering includes the insight-eliciting methods of systems thinking, and uses them to address issues in a manner guided by the Total Systems Intervention framework."​ <​ref>​Cook,​ Stephen C. and Ferris, Timothy L.J.  (2007) Re-evaluating Systems Engineering as a Framework for Tackling Systems Issues. Systems Research and Behavior Science; John Wiley & Sons  (169-181)</​ref>​ In the research paper published in the IFSR journal: Systems Research Behavior Science, Cook and Ferris argue, "​...that,​ as such, systems engineering is an appropriate methodology for any problem situation where the solution can be expected to involve a substantial technical component."​ They  contend that systems engineering is really a transdisciplinary metamethodology because of the use of many methodologies. They also believe that Systems engineering "​...should be recognized within the Total Systems Intervention framework as the appropriate methodology to address issues in any category sector of the matrix. where it is anticipated that the solution is likely to involve design of something involving a substantial amount of technology. In turn systems engineering includes the insight-eliciting methods of systems thinking, and uses them to address issues in a manner guided by the Total Systems Intervention framework."​ <​ref>​Cook,​ Stephen C. and Ferris, Timothy L.J.  (2007) Re-evaluating Systems Engineering as a Framework for Tackling Systems Issues. Systems Research and Behavior Science; John Wiley & Sons  (169-181)</​ref>​
  
-System Dynamics+SYSTEM DYNAMICS
  
 System Dynamics originated at MIT by Jay Forrester as an attempt to explain production fluctuations ​ resulting from business cycles. A business cycle such as the Christmas buying season sets off cycles due to a lag in information ​ from retail stores to distributors to manufacturing plants. ​ System Dynamics originated at MIT by Jay Forrester as an attempt to explain production fluctuations ​ resulting from business cycles. A business cycle such as the Christmas buying season sets off cycles due to a lag in information ​ from retail stores to distributors to manufacturing plants. ​
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 *implements this solution. *implements this solution.
  
-Living systems theory+LIVING SYSTEMS THEORY
  
 "By definition, living systems are open, ''​self-organizing systems''​ that have the special characteristics of life and interact with their environment. This takes place by means of ''​information and material-energy exchanges''​."​ [3] "By definition, living systems are open, ''​self-organizing systems''​ that have the special characteristics of life and interact with their environment. This takes place by means of ''​information and material-energy exchanges''​."​ [3]
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 Regardless of their complexity, they each depend upon the same essential ''​twenty subsystems''​ (or processes) to survive and to continue the propagation of their species or types beyond a single generation. "The twenty subsystems that process information or material-energy or both account for the survival of living systems, at any level."​ "​Living Systems Theory is a general theory about how all living systems "''​work'',"​ about how they maintain themselves and how they develop and change [4] Regardless of their complexity, they each depend upon the same essential ''​twenty subsystems''​ (or processes) to survive and to continue the propagation of their species or types beyond a single generation. "The twenty subsystems that process information or material-energy or both account for the survival of living systems, at any level."​ "​Living Systems Theory is a general theory about how all living systems "''​work'',"​ about how they maintain themselves and how they develop and change [4]
  
-Complex systems+COMPLEX SYSTEMS
  
 By definition a simple system is a complex. Complexity is inherant in any system at least in principle. ​ Complexity science emerged to study the mathematics of nonlinear dynamical systems. ​ By definition a simple system is a complex. Complexity is inherant in any system at least in principle. ​ Complexity science emerged to study the mathematics of nonlinear dynamical systems. ​
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-Theory of the whole system+THEORY OF THE WHOLE SYSTEM
  
 Ludwug von Bertalanffy ​ defined a system philosophically as ''"​elements in standing interrelationship."''​ Systemists explain that the interactive relationships of the elements are emergent relationships and subsequently form a new ''​emergent whole''​. This ''​whole system''​ may have properties which are not found in the elements when taken in isolation. An example often used by systemists is the ''​wetness''​ of water that ''​cannot be found in the elemental gases''​ of Oxygen and Hydrogen which make up the water. ​ Ludwug von Bertalanffy ​ defined a system philosophically as ''"​elements in standing interrelationship."''​ Systemists explain that the interactive relationships of the elements are emergent relationships and subsequently form a new ''​emergent whole''​. This ''​whole system''​ may have properties which are not found in the elements when taken in isolation. An example often used by systemists is the ''​wetness''​ of water that ''​cannot be found in the elemental gases''​ of Oxygen and Hydrogen which make up the water. ​
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 The late Bela H. Banathy contributed extensively to the knowledge base of systems theory, human activity systems (HAS) in particular. His role was that of an educator, having taught Boy scouts, North American Indians and Phd's. Professor Banathy wrote, “In contrast with the analytical, reductionist,​ and linear-causal paradigm of classical science, systems philosophy brings forth a reorientation of thought and world view, manifested by an expansionist,​ non- linear dynamic, and synthetic mode of thinking....Traditional science was unable and unwilling to consider Purpose and Meaning which, in the emerging view of disciplined inquiry, has a guiding role. And where dominance once was the purpose, there is now a search for establishing a grand Alliance of science, philosophy, art, and religion."​ <​!--<​ref></​ref>​-->​ The late Bela H. Banathy contributed extensively to the knowledge base of systems theory, human activity systems (HAS) in particular. His role was that of an educator, having taught Boy scouts, North American Indians and Phd's. Professor Banathy wrote, “In contrast with the analytical, reductionist,​ and linear-causal paradigm of classical science, systems philosophy brings forth a reorientation of thought and world view, manifested by an expansionist,​ non- linear dynamic, and synthetic mode of thinking....Traditional science was unable and unwilling to consider Purpose and Meaning which, in the emerging view of disciplined inquiry, has a guiding role. And where dominance once was the purpose, there is now a search for establishing a grand Alliance of science, philosophy, art, and religion."​ <​!--<​ref></​ref>​-->​
  
-Genesis of the systems movement+GENESIS OF THE SYSTEMS MOVEMENT
 The beginning of systems science and the goals of that movement as a science in service to humanity is explained by the late Bela H, Banathy. a co-founder of IFSR and  considered by the systems community as a significant educator of systems theory. ​ The beginning of systems science and the goals of that movement as a science in service to humanity is explained by the late Bela H, Banathy. a co-founder of IFSR and  considered by the systems community as a significant educator of systems theory. ​
  
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 And thus, in 1954, at the Stanford Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Ludwig von Bertalanffy,​ Kenneth Boulding, Ralph Gerard, and Anatol Rapoport established systems theory as a scientific methodology to become ''​a science dedicated to the service of humanity''​.[2] In collaboration with James Grier Miller, the Society for General Systems Research (SGSR) was formed in 1956 as an affiliate of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. SGSR was renamed the International Society for the System Sciences (ISSS) in 1988. Adherents today often find home for their ideas and research within the national and international societies and their respective chapters, most of which are affiliates of the International Federation for Systems Research (IFSR). And thus, in 1954, at the Stanford Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Ludwig von Bertalanffy,​ Kenneth Boulding, Ralph Gerard, and Anatol Rapoport established systems theory as a scientific methodology to become ''​a science dedicated to the service of humanity''​.[2] In collaboration with James Grier Miller, the Society for General Systems Research (SGSR) was formed in 1956 as an affiliate of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. SGSR was renamed the International Society for the System Sciences (ISSS) in 1988. Adherents today often find home for their ideas and research within the national and international societies and their respective chapters, most of which are affiliates of the International Federation for Systems Research (IFSR).
  
-General systems theory+GENERAL SYSTEMS THEORY
  
 Ludwig von Bertalanffy'​s book ''​General System Theory''​ brought together the concepts and models of organismic thought using the umbrella word '''''​system'''''​. His book and the establishment of a research society served as the stage for the beginning of the systems movement. General systems theory is concerned with the concepts, principles, and models that are common to all kinds of systems and the isomorphisms between and among various types of systems. Bertalanffy writes, “In our considerations we started with a general definition of '​systems'​ defined as a “set of elements standing in interrelations... No special hypothesis or statement were made about the nature of the system, of its elements or the relations between them. Nevertheless from this purely formal definition of “system” many properties follow which in part are expressed in laws well-known in various fields of science, and in part concern concepts previously regarded as anthropomorphic,​ vitalistic. or metaphysical. The parallelism of general conceptions or even special laws in different fields therefore is a consequence of the fact that those are concerned with “systems” and that certain general principles apply to systems irrespective of their nature... [1]  Ludwig von Bertalanffy'​s book ''​General System Theory''​ brought together the concepts and models of organismic thought using the umbrella word '''''​system'''''​. His book and the establishment of a research society served as the stage for the beginning of the systems movement. General systems theory is concerned with the concepts, principles, and models that are common to all kinds of systems and the isomorphisms between and among various types of systems. Bertalanffy writes, “In our considerations we started with a general definition of '​systems'​ defined as a “set of elements standing in interrelations... No special hypothesis or statement were made about the nature of the system, of its elements or the relations between them. Nevertheless from this purely formal definition of “system” many properties follow which in part are expressed in laws well-known in various fields of science, and in part concern concepts previously regarded as anthropomorphic,​ vitalistic. or metaphysical. The parallelism of general conceptions or even special laws in different fields therefore is a consequence of the fact that those are concerned with “systems” and that certain general principles apply to systems irrespective of their nature... [1] 
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 Banathy describes how systemists work with general principles -"By observing various types of systems and studying their behavior, we can recognize characteristics that are common to all systems. Once we have identified and described a set of concepts that are common to the systems, and observed and discovered among some of them certain relationships,​ we can construct from them ''​General Systems Principles.''​ Thus, a system principle emerges from an interaction/​integration of related concepts. Next, we are in the position to look for relationships among principles and organize related principles into certain conceptual schemes we call ''​Systems Models''​. This process of starting from observation and arriving at the construction of systems models constitutes the ''​First Stage''​ of developing a systems view. Banathy describes how systemists work with general principles -"By observing various types of systems and studying their behavior, we can recognize characteristics that are common to all systems. Once we have identified and described a set of concepts that are common to the systems, and observed and discovered among some of them certain relationships,​ we can construct from them ''​General Systems Principles.''​ Thus, a system principle emerges from an interaction/​integration of related concepts. Next, we are in the position to look for relationships among principles and organize related principles into certain conceptual schemes we call ''​Systems Models''​. This process of starting from observation and arriving at the construction of systems models constitutes the ''​First Stage''​ of developing a systems view.
  
-General System Theory skeptics+GENERAL SYSTEMS THEORY SKEPTICS
 General Systems Theory has, as Laszlo puts it, "wroth a certain amount of havoc" ​ Skeptics claim that no success has been seen toward the development of a singular general system theory. "There ain't no such thing!"​ Len Troncale stated. Instead, apologists claim, the term is being mistranslated and actually is supposed to be of a much more general concept of theories. ​ General Systems Theory has, as Laszlo puts it, "wroth a certain amount of havoc" ​ Skeptics claim that no success has been seen toward the development of a singular general system theory. "There ain't no such thing!"​ Len Troncale stated. Instead, apologists claim, the term is being mistranslated and actually is supposed to be of a much more general concept of theories. ​
  
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 <​ref>​Menas Kafatos and Robert Nadeau, (1990) The Conscious Universe: Part and Whole in Modern Physical Theory. Springer Verlag, New York.</​ref>​ <​ref>​Menas Kafatos and Robert Nadeau, (1990) The Conscious Universe: Part and Whole in Modern Physical Theory. Springer Verlag, New York.</​ref>​
  
-Criticisms of system theory+CRITICISMS OF SYSTEMS THEORY
  
 Criticisms of system theory center on what practitioners have done with the theory whereas little if any criticisms concern the concept itself. Don McNeil evaluates the system movement predicament and claims there is no comprehensive theory of systems; no standard textbook of fundamentals,​ no definitive workbook of techiques and applications. ​ Criticisms of system theory center on what practitioners have done with the theory whereas little if any criticisms concern the concept itself. Don McNeil evaluates the system movement predicament and claims there is no comprehensive theory of systems; no standard textbook of fundamentals,​ no definitive workbook of techiques and applications. ​
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 Francois adds, "​Unfortunately,​ there is much truth in McNeil'​s indictment, even if it will be difficult - and inappropriate -- to transform systems thinking or systems approach into a "​discipline"​. This would put it nicely in a small and segregated intellectual niche, while it really shound become the basic ground of anybody confronted with complex situations of any kind, anywhere at any time, i.e., all of us!{" Francois adds, "​Unfortunately,​ there is much truth in McNeil'​s indictment, even if it will be difficult - and inappropriate -- to transform systems thinking or systems approach into a "​discipline"​. This would put it nicely in a small and segregated intellectual niche, while it really shound become the basic ground of anybody confronted with complex situations of any kind, anywhere at any time, i.e., all of us!{"
  
-Transdisciplinary Language+TRANSDISCIPLINARY LANGUAGE
  
 Systems philosophy/​theory/​thinking/​action is transdisciplinary in the sense that relationships are a common story so to tell that story in any field, be it literature or atomic systems, essentially the same words may be used to describe general notions which are fleshed out within the particular discipline. Systems philosophy/​theory/​thinking/​action is transdisciplinary in the sense that relationships are a common story so to tell that story in any field, be it literature or atomic systems, essentially the same words may be used to describe general notions which are fleshed out within the particular discipline.
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-Systems Philosophy+SYSTEMS PHILOSOPHY
 Because systems theory is concerned with principles that are general, philosophy has a crucial influence, hence systems philosophy is a guiding element of systems theory.The transdisciplanarity of systems theory is realized at the philosophical level, whereas the particular level of science is constrained by those particulars to only those particulars. Conversely, when particulars are generalized,​ the particularities are removed becoming by design unprovable but general. Because systems theory is concerned with principles that are general, philosophy has a crucial influence, hence systems philosophy is a guiding element of systems theory.The transdisciplanarity of systems theory is realized at the philosophical level, whereas the particular level of science is constrained by those particulars to only those particulars. Conversely, when particulars are generalized,​ the particularities are removed becoming by design unprovable but general.
  
-Systems Science+SYSTEMS SCIENCE
  
 Eberhard Umbach describes systems science as a highway with many turns off's. Systems science was conceived in the first half of the 20th century to get beyond the limitations of the specialized sciences and the concomitant loss of overview. ​ Eberhard Umbach describes systems science as a highway with many turns off's. Systems science was conceived in the first half of the 20th century to get beyond the limitations of the specialized sciences and the concomitant loss of overview. ​
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 [[http://​isss.org/​projects/​general_orientations_of_systems_science]] [[http://​isss.org/​projects/​general_orientations_of_systems_science]]
  
-Systems Thinking+SYSTEMS THINKING
 A tendency or natural predisposition to think in terms of systemic relationships without necessarily drawing upon systems concepts, systems principles, or systems models. Some examples of areas that incorporate and foster such thinking include permaculture,​ systems biology, feminist studies, ecology, Zen and the I Ching. Systems thinking is ontologically different from elemental thinking.The subject of systems thinking is the interrelationships among the objects. But NOT in the object way. Systems thinking instead is thinking in terms of action/​doing/​knowing. A tendency or natural predisposition to think in terms of systemic relationships without necessarily drawing upon systems concepts, systems principles, or systems models. Some examples of areas that incorporate and foster such thinking include permaculture,​ systems biology, feminist studies, ecology, Zen and the I Ching. Systems thinking is ontologically different from elemental thinking.The subject of systems thinking is the interrelationships among the objects. But NOT in the object way. Systems thinking instead is thinking in terms of action/​doing/​knowing.
  
-Systems Inquiry+SYSTEMS INQUIRY
 Ludwig von Bertalanffy outlines the inquiry of systems in three major domains: Philosophy, Science, and Technology. In his work with the Primer Group, Bela H. Banathy generalized the domains into four integrated "​domains of systemic inquiry"​ operating recursively. Ludwig von Bertalanffy outlines the inquiry of systems in three major domains: Philosophy, Science, and Technology. In his work with the Primer Group, Bela H. Banathy generalized the domains into four integrated "​domains of systemic inquiry"​ operating recursively.
  
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 Markus Schwaninger describes this as "​Being."​ Markus Schwaninger describes this as "​Being."​
  
-System types+SYSTEM TYPES
  
 Crucial to working with systems are the types of system. Varous authors have defined system types similiar to that given us by Bela H Banathy who identifies the major categories as '''''​Natural'''​ and '''​Designed'''''​ systems. Natural systems are those which occur in nature while designed systems are those created by us. Designed Systems include: ​ Crucial to working with systems are the types of system. Varous authors have defined system types similiar to that given us by Bela H Banathy who identifies the major categories as '''''​Natural'''​ and '''​Designed'''''​ systems. Natural systems are those which occur in nature while designed systems are those created by us. Designed Systems include: ​
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 d) Human Activity Systems, our purposeful creations (groups) d) Human Activity Systems, our purposeful creations (groups)
  
-Multiple Perspectives+MULTIPLE PERSPECTIVES
  
 In Hal LInstone'​s T.O.P. methodology,​ developed from experience in  the field. the different perspectives one may adopt are grouped into the "​Technical,​ (T); the Organizational(O) and the Personal (P). He maintains that a Technical perspective will not, for example, focus on Personal issues..."​Applied to a given system, each perspective yields insights not attainable with the others. Together, T, 0, and P form what Churchman calls a Singerian inquiring system. “Cross-cuing” and integration of the perspectives must be done by the decision maker. An analogy is the American courtroom, where the jury considers various perspectives (witness testimonies) and even prototype integrations (by the prosecutor and defense attorney), but must undertake its own integration to arrive at a verdict. Furthermore,​ as any executive knows, science-based “replication” and “validation” are not meaningful concepts in this context."​ In Hal LInstone'​s T.O.P. methodology,​ developed from experience in  the field. the different perspectives one may adopt are grouped into the "​Technical,​ (T); the Organizational(O) and the Personal (P). He maintains that a Technical perspective will not, for example, focus on Personal issues..."​Applied to a given system, each perspective yields insights not attainable with the others. Together, T, 0, and P form what Churchman calls a Singerian inquiring system. “Cross-cuing” and integration of the perspectives must be done by the decision maker. An analogy is the American courtroom, where the jury considers various perspectives (witness testimonies) and even prototype integrations (by the prosecutor and defense attorney), but must undertake its own integration to arrive at a verdict. Furthermore,​ as any executive knows, science-based “replication” and “validation” are not meaningful concepts in this context."​
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 The methodology,​ a method The methodology,​ a method
  
-Process model+PROCESS MODEL
  
 An organized arrangement of systems concepts and principles that portray the behavior of a system through time. Its metaphor is the “motion-picture” of “movie” of the system. An organized arrangement of systems concepts and principles that portray the behavior of a system through time. Its metaphor is the “motion-picture” of “movie” of the system.
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 Gyorgy Jaros has looked at information as a process. Of his Teleonics concept he writes: "It is argued that these informationally bonded processes are the basic ingredients of life and entities, which appear only as the result of processes, are of secondary importance(?​). Thus, in Teleonics one does not speak of interaction between entities, but ''​interaction between processes''​."​ Gyorgy Jaros has looked at information as a process. Of his Teleonics concept he writes: "It is argued that these informationally bonded processes are the basic ingredients of life and entities, which appear only as the result of processes, are of secondary importance(?​). Thus, in Teleonics one does not speak of interaction between entities, but ''​interaction between processes''​."​
  
-Hierarchy Theory+HIERARCHY THEORY
  
 Hierarchy Theory focuses on levels, and in a grequently used version,on scale. A significant emphasis is on the observer, thus it has been viewed as a theory of observation. ​ For example, an individual human being may be a member of the level I) Organism, or Host, or parasite, II) primate, III) Hierarchy Theory focuses on levels, and in a grequently used version,on scale. A significant emphasis is on the observer, thus it has been viewed as a theory of observation. ​ For example, an individual human being may be a member of the level I) Organism, or Host, or parasite, II) primate, III)
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 Allen writes, "​Hierarchy theory is as much as anything a theory of observation. It has been significantly operationalized in ecology, but has been applied relatively infrequently outside that science. There is a negative reaction to hierarchy theory in the social sciences, by virtue of implications of rigid autocratic systems or authority. When applied in a more general fashion, even liberal and non-authoritarian systems can be described effectively in hierarchical terms. There is a politically correct set of labels that avoid the word hierarchy, but they unnecessarily introduce jargon into a field that has enough special vocabulary as it is. " [[2]]. ​ Pther workers take a more ontological approach. Allen writes, "​Hierarchy theory is as much as anything a theory of observation. It has been significantly operationalized in ecology, but has been applied relatively infrequently outside that science. There is a negative reaction to hierarchy theory in the social sciences, by virtue of implications of rigid autocratic systems or authority. When applied in a more general fashion, even liberal and non-authoritarian systems can be described effectively in hierarchical terms. There is a politically correct set of labels that avoid the word hierarchy, but they unnecessarily introduce jargon into a field that has enough special vocabulary as it is. " [[2]]. ​ Pther workers take a more ontological approach.
  
- ​Scalar Hierarchy Theory+SCALAR HIERARCHY THEORY
  
 Stanley Salthe'​s approach involves two kinds of hierarchy - Scalar and Specification. A ''​Scalar hierarchy'',​ formally a compositonal hierarchy, has levels nested within one another, while ''​Specification hierarchy'',​ formally a subsumption hierarchy, extends ordered intensional complexity. Salthe writes: "​Hierarchy Theory encompasses both the scalar hierarchy with nested extensions (represented as scalar levels as in Stanley Salthe'​s approach involves two kinds of hierarchy - Scalar and Specification. A ''​Scalar hierarchy'',​ formally a compositonal hierarchy, has levels nested within one another, while ''​Specification hierarchy'',​ formally a subsumption hierarchy, extends ordered intensional complexity. Salthe writes: "​Hierarchy Theory encompasses both the scalar hierarchy with nested extensions (represented as scalar levels as in
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 In the specification hierarchy { } is a selectively transparent one-way filter. For example, at the level where social dynamics are taking place selected chemical dynamics are also "​visible",​ in their effects upon the social dynamics, along with the promotion or harnessing of these dynamics by social ones." In the specification hierarchy { } is a selectively transparent one-way filter. For example, at the level where social dynamics are taking place selected chemical dynamics are also "​visible",​ in their effects upon the social dynamics, along with the promotion or harnessing of these dynamics by social ones."
  
-General evolution theory+GENERAL EVOLUTION THEORY
  
 Evolution is a tendency toward greater structural complexity, ecological and/or organizational effectiveness,​ more efficient modes of operation, and greater dynamic harmony by means of self-organization. A system by definition is an evolutionary system. A significant feature of a system is emergence. When the focus is on the interrelationships of a system, these relationships may be found to have emergent properties, properties which Evolution is a tendency toward greater structural complexity, ecological and/or organizational effectiveness,​ more efficient modes of operation, and greater dynamic harmony by means of self-organization. A system by definition is an evolutionary system. A significant feature of a system is emergence. When the focus is on the interrelationships of a system, these relationships may be found to have emergent properties, properties which
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-Self organization+SELF ORGANIZATION
  
 Self-organization occurs, for example, in the cell in the process of DNA replication whereby a second DNA molecule is produced as a complementary to the existing strand without any external influences. Self-organization is also seen in the union of the sperm with the ovum to form a relationship. Evolution is initiated by the self-organization of new phenotypic configurations. Self-organized Evolution is a characteristic of a system, not a product of chance events. ​ It involves both system characteristics and contigingency. Self-organization occurs, for example, in the cell in the process of DNA replication whereby a second DNA molecule is produced as a complementary to the existing strand without any external influences. Self-organization is also seen in the union of the sperm with the ovum to form a relationship. Evolution is initiated by the self-organization of new phenotypic configurations. Self-organized Evolution is a characteristic of a system, not a product of chance events. ​ It involves both system characteristics and contigingency.
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 </​ref>​ </​ref>​
  
-Hard and Soft systems+HARD AND SOFT SYSTEMS
  
 '​Soft'​ systems was made distinct from '​hard'​ systems in order to differentiate among the mathematical models employed. Some systems, such as a social system, do not lend themselves to mathematical formulations as they do in, say, chemical reaction systems. Generally, hard systems are the physical systems while Soft systems are Human Activity Systems. The concept was introduced by Peter Checkland in 1981 '​Soft'​ systems was made distinct from '​hard'​ systems in order to differentiate among the mathematical models employed. Some systems, such as a social system, do not lend themselves to mathematical formulations as they do in, say, chemical reaction systems. Generally, hard systems are the physical systems while Soft systems are Human Activity Systems. The concept was introduced by Peter Checkland in 1981
  
-Social system design+SOCIAL SYSTEMS DESIGN
 Social systems design advocates participative democracy in which those affected by the design are the creators of the design. The metaphor of "​sweeping in" applies in particular here. This requires a working knowledge of the dynamics which govern the interconnected,​ interdependant and interacting problems. Solutions emerge when the situation is looked at as a whole. Banathy argues "While traditional science describes what exists as determined by experiments,​ classification,​ analysis and deduction in a objective, rational and neutral way, social system design focuses on understanding,​ by means of analogy, metaphor, criticism and evaluation to form patterns, conjectures and models as a subjective, creative and empathetic concern."​ Social systems design advocates participative democracy in which those affected by the design are the creators of the design. The metaphor of "​sweeping in" applies in particular here. This requires a working knowledge of the dynamics which govern the interconnected,​ interdependant and interacting problems. Solutions emerge when the situation is looked at as a whole. Banathy argues "While traditional science describes what exists as determined by experiments,​ classification,​ analysis and deduction in a objective, rational and neutral way, social system design focuses on understanding,​ by means of analogy, metaphor, criticism and evaluation to form patterns, conjectures and models as a subjective, creative and empathetic concern."​
  
-Human Activity Systems+HUMAN ACTIVITY SYSTEMS
 Human Activity Systems are designed social systems organized for a purpose, which they attain by carrying out specific functions. The various types of Human Activity Systems include Rigidly controlled systems, (assembly line) Deterministic systems (educational systems); Purposive systems, (Corporations) Purpose Seeking systems, (social systems) and Heuristic systems, (R&D agencies). Human Activity Systems are designed social systems organized for a purpose, which they attain by carrying out specific functions. The various types of Human Activity Systems include Rigidly controlled systems, (assembly line) Deterministic systems (educational systems); Purposive systems, (Corporations) Purpose Seeking systems, (social systems) and Heuristic systems, (R&D agencies).
  
-Social Systems Designing+SOCIAL SYSTEMS DESIGNING
  
 Bela H Banathy has developed social system design beginning early in his career. Social systems design does not attempt to design for the affected, "the age of the designer expert is over" he claims. This notion becomes clear when it is realized that a whole system involves those who are affected by it. And pragmatically it is believed by proponents that those who partake in their own systems design are more likely to remain committed to the design. In this way the unique desires of the participants are taken into consideration. Systems theory provides the requisite knowledge of how to design which enables those who are affected to competantly design their own system. Bela H Banathy has developed social system design beginning early in his career. Social systems design does not attempt to design for the affected, "the age of the designer expert is over" he claims. This notion becomes clear when it is realized that a whole system involves those who are affected by it. And pragmatically it is believed by proponents that those who partake in their own systems design are more likely to remain committed to the design. In this way the unique desires of the participants are taken into consideration. Systems theory provides the requisite knowledge of how to design which enables those who are affected to competantly design their own system.
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 [[http://​www.isss.org/​projects/​methodology]] [[http://​www.isss.org/​projects/​methodology]]
  
-Social System Ethics+SOCIAL SYSTEMS ETHICS
  
 A considerable library of literature about systems ethics was produced, ​ A considerable library of literature about systems ethics was produced, ​
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-Particular Systemic Intentions+PARTICULAR SYSTEMIC INTENTIONS
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 Because systems theory can be used as a metatheory, particularized methodologies of systemics have emerged in various fields. Bertalanffy comments that the content is the same, what is different is the intentions. Because systems theory can be used as a metatheory, particularized methodologies of systemics have emerged in various fields. Bertalanffy comments that the content is the same, what is different is the intentions.
  
-Soft Systems Methodology+SOFT SYSTEM METHODOLOGY
  
 Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) was developed by Peter Checkland as a generic systems approach to problem solving in Management. In its simple form, SSM is a progressive learning tool involving gathering information,​ defining concepts, developing conceptual models, comparing the models to the perceived reality and then action is taken accordingly. The process is recursive. ​ Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) was developed by Peter Checkland as a generic systems approach to problem solving in Management. In its simple form, SSM is a progressive learning tool involving gathering information,​ defining concepts, developing conceptual models, comparing the models to the perceived reality and then action is taken accordingly. The process is recursive. ​
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 Fuenmayor extended SSM with his theory of Interpretive Systemology. In this interpretation,​ fact are not facts in themselves, but are interpretations. He writes: "The methodological search or knowledge is characterized by the modeling of various contexts of meaning, by explicitly interpreting the phenomenon with regard to such contexts of meaning and by discussing the various interpretations in the light of their respective contexts of meaning."​ Fuenmayor extended SSM with his theory of Interpretive Systemology. In this interpretation,​ fact are not facts in themselves, but are interpretations. He writes: "The methodological search or knowledge is characterized by the modeling of various contexts of meaning, by explicitly interpreting the phenomenon with regard to such contexts of meaning and by discussing the various interpretations in the light of their respective contexts of meaning."​
  
-Interactive Management+INTERACTIVE MANAGEMENT
 Interactive Management is a decision-orientated disciplined inquiry seeking to resolve issues and situations that are beyond ordinary resolution techniques. The concept was developed by Warfield and Christakis in 1980 at the University of Virginia, one of the first design approaches to use computer software programs. ​ Interactive Management is a decision-orientated disciplined inquiry seeking to resolve issues and situations that are beyond ordinary resolution techniques. The concept was developed by Warfield and Christakis in 1980 at the University of Virginia, one of the first design approaches to use computer software programs. ​
  
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 Relevant outcomes of IM include (1) participants are involved in  significant learning experiences,​ (2) their involvement creates commitments to the choices made and (3) careful and detailed documentation enables wide distribution of findings available for continuing design. ​ <ref> Banathy, Bela H. (1996) Designing Social Systems in a Changing World. Plenum Press, New YOur. ISBN 0-306-45251-0</​ref>​ Relevant outcomes of IM include (1) participants are involved in  significant learning experiences,​ (2) their involvement creates commitments to the choices made and (3) careful and detailed documentation enables wide distribution of findings available for continuing design. ​ <ref> Banathy, Bela H. (1996) Designing Social Systems in a Changing World. Plenum Press, New YOur. ISBN 0-306-45251-0</​ref>​
  
-Critical Systems Theory+CRITICAL SYSTEMS THEORY
  
 Critical systems theory is a soft system methodology which tries to equalize the power inequities which often thwart SSM. Jackson writes " privileged stakeholders (in terms of wealth, status, or power) are unlikely to risk their dominant position and submit their privileges to the vagaries of idealized design or whatever." ​ Critical systems theory is a soft system methodology which tries to equalize the power inequities which often thwart SSM. Jackson writes " privileged stakeholders (in terms of wealth, status, or power) are unlikely to risk their dominant position and submit their privileges to the vagaries of idealized design or whatever." ​
  
-Critical Heuristics of Social System Design.+CRITICAL HEURISTICS OF SOCIAL SYSTEM DESIGN 
 Werner Ulrich sees science as the study of "​contexts of application"​ ."<​ref>​Bausch KC (2000) ''​The Emerging Consensus in Social Systems Theory.''​ Kluwar Academics, New York p126</​ref>​ He finds a problem between science and those affected by it. His concern about the coercive effects of pseudoscience. As in many other situations, the ideal circumstances might make an idealized system model work, but life is ill-defined. Ulrich has in mind those who are unwitting victims of ideological forces. Domination of one over the other "''​by forces other than that of the better argument''​. "​Critical heuristics posits three requirements:​ (1) "a clear understanding of the unavoidability and critical significance of justification break-off'​s;​ (1)  a conceptual framework to identify effective breakoff'​s of argumentation";​ and (3) "a tool of cogent argumentation that would be available ...to ordinary citizens." ​ "The systems movement will make a real contribution toward communicative systems rationalization if it puts the systems idea to work on the job of dealing critically with conditions of imperfect rationality"​ Ulrich advises. Werner Ulrich sees science as the study of "​contexts of application"​ ."<​ref>​Bausch KC (2000) ''​The Emerging Consensus in Social Systems Theory.''​ Kluwar Academics, New York p126</​ref>​ He finds a problem between science and those affected by it. His concern about the coercive effects of pseudoscience. As in many other situations, the ideal circumstances might make an idealized system model work, but life is ill-defined. Ulrich has in mind those who are unwitting victims of ideological forces. Domination of one over the other "''​by forces other than that of the better argument''​. "​Critical heuristics posits three requirements:​ (1) "a clear understanding of the unavoidability and critical significance of justification break-off'​s;​ (1)  a conceptual framework to identify effective breakoff'​s of argumentation";​ and (3) "a tool of cogent argumentation that would be available ...to ordinary citizens." ​ "The systems movement will make a real contribution toward communicative systems rationalization if it puts the systems idea to work on the job of dealing critically with conditions of imperfect rationality"​ Ulrich advises.
  
-Total Systems Intervention+TOTAL SYSTEMS INTERVENTION
  
 Total Systems Intervention is described by Mike Jackson and R. Flood as a total systems approach to planning, designing, problem solving and evaluation. Total Systems Intervention is described by Mike Jackson and R. Flood as a total systems approach to planning, designing, problem solving and evaluation.
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 Three stages of the TSI Process include the ''​creativity stage'' ​ in which metaphors such as organization as a machine, or organism, or brain, or culture, or team, or coalition, or prison, leads to enhanced appreciation of key issues. The second stage is a choice of a ''​dominant methodology''​ to tackle the key issues. And the third is ''​implementation''​. The process is systemic and iterative with continual reference back to other phases of the process. Three stages of the TSI Process include the ''​creativity stage'' ​ in which metaphors such as organization as a machine, or organism, or brain, or culture, or team, or coalition, or prison, leads to enhanced appreciation of key issues. The second stage is a choice of a ''​dominant methodology''​ to tackle the key issues. And the third is ''​implementation''​. The process is systemic and iterative with continual reference back to other phases of the process.
  
-Integrated Systems Methodologies+INTERGRATED SYSTEMS METHODLOGIES
 "ISM is a heuristic to provide actors in organizations with requisite variety, developed by Schwaninger [1997]. It advocates (a) dealing with both content- and context-related issues, and (b) placing a stronger emphasis on the validation of qualitative and quantitative models, as well as strategies, in both dimensions: content and context. For this purpose, the tools of SD (to model content)and Management Cybernetics – the VSM (to model context) - are cogently integrated."​ "ISM is a heuristic to provide actors in organizations with requisite variety, developed by Schwaninger [1997]. It advocates (a) dealing with both content- and context-related issues, and (b) placing a stronger emphasis on the validation of qualitative and quantitative models, as well as strategies, in both dimensions: content and context. For this purpose, the tools of SD (to model content)and Management Cybernetics – the VSM (to model context) - are cogently integrated."​
 Coparticipative Design Coparticipative Design
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 Architecture of Complexity Architecture of Complexity
  
- ​Problematique+PROBLAMATIQUE
  
 John Warfield, in his book ''​Understanding Complexity, Thought and Behavior'',​ writes about a program centered on the relationships among the elements of a complexity. He calls this the "Work Program of Complexity",​ designed to illuminate the perplexity of complexity through "​learning"​. The program has two fundamental thrusts, one toward ''​discovery''​ and the other toward ''​resolution''​. Discovery has two thrusts: ''​description''​ and ''​diagnosis''​. Resolution has two also, ''​planning''​ and ''​implementation''​. The program uses ''​Interactive Management''​ principles to enable a group to come to grips with a problem. ​ John Warfield, in his book ''​Understanding Complexity, Thought and Behavior'',​ writes about a program centered on the relationships among the elements of a complexity. He calls this the "Work Program of Complexity",​ designed to illuminate the perplexity of complexity through "​learning"​. The program has two fundamental thrusts, one toward ''​discovery''​ and the other toward ''​resolution''​. Discovery has two thrusts: ''​description''​ and ''​diagnosis''​. Resolution has two also, ''​planning''​ and ''​implementation''​. The program uses ''​Interactive Management''​ principles to enable a group to come to grips with a problem. ​
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 Once the Problematique is created, and presented in an ''​observatorium''​ in such a manner to be worthy of the work involved, a ''​diagnosis''​ is formed, a plan devised, and then implemented. Once the Problematique is created, and presented in an ''​observatorium''​ in such a manner to be worthy of the work involved, a ''​diagnosis''​ is formed, a plan devised, and then implemented.
  
-Systems view of Education+SYSTEMS VIEW OF EDUCATION 
 "A systems view enfolds large sets of concepts that constitute principles common to all kinds of systems, that are manifested in multiple connotations,​ such as the way we can think (systems thinking), the way we understand phenomena (having a systems perspective),​ and characterize an entity (systems discription) the way an entity behaves (systems behavoir) and the way we might do things (systems practice). ... Having a systems view of education, for example, means that we can think about education as a system, we can understand and describe it as a system, we can design education so that it manifests systems behavoir, and we can engage in educational inquiry by using approaches and methods of systems practice"<​ref>​Banathy,​ Bela H., (1992) A Systems View of Education; Concepts and Principes for Effective Practice. Educational Technology Publications,​ New Jersey.ISBN 0-87778-245-8</​ref>​ "A systems view enfolds large sets of concepts that constitute principles common to all kinds of systems, that are manifested in multiple connotations,​ such as the way we can think (systems thinking), the way we understand phenomena (having a systems perspective),​ and characterize an entity (systems discription) the way an entity behaves (systems behavoir) and the way we might do things (systems practice). ... Having a systems view of education, for example, means that we can think about education as a system, we can understand and describe it as a system, we can design education so that it manifests systems behavoir, and we can engage in educational inquiry by using approaches and methods of systems practice"<​ref>​Banathy,​ Bela H., (1992) A Systems View of Education; Concepts and Principes for Effective Practice. Educational Technology Publications,​ New Jersey.ISBN 0-87778-245-8</​ref>​
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-Cybernetics+CYBERNETICS 
 N. Wiener defined cybernetics in  1948 as the field of control and communication in the animal and the machine. This thread has produced technical cybernetics described by I.G. Bloor "as a technique it has become the design template for mechanical and electronic systems and latterly the design of management informations systems. Cybernetic theory requests that all inputs to, and outputs from a system must be defined or designed together with suitable triggers or sensor mechanisms to detect change in activity or response."​ (1987 p.8) N. Wiener defined cybernetics in  1948 as the field of control and communication in the animal and the machine. This thread has produced technical cybernetics described by I.G. Bloor "as a technique it has become the design template for mechanical and electronic systems and latterly the design of management informations systems. Cybernetic theory requests that all inputs to, and outputs from a system must be defined or designed together with suitable triggers or sensor mechanisms to detect change in activity or response."​ (1987 p.8)
  
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 Third Order Cybernetics is a systhesis of the observed and the observer. Third Order Cybernetics is a systhesis of the observed and the observer.
  
-Systems Theory in Practice+SYSTEMS THEORY IN PRACTICE
  
 It is the nature of a system that there are outward and inward flows of information and communication. If the field of systems theory is looked at with this model, we also find this complementary of in/out in this way: (1) Systems Theory is practiced by systems theorists/​academicians as the  ''​focus''​ of their research (outward), while (2) others outside the systems academic domain ''​use''​ system principles (inward) to focus on ''​their''​ research, whatever that might be. An illustration of how systems thinking is practiced by those outside the systems movement can be found in the article [[systems biology]]. ​ It is the nature of a system that there are outward and inward flows of information and communication. If the field of systems theory is looked at with this model, we also find this complementary of in/out in this way: (1) Systems Theory is practiced by systems theorists/​academicians as the  ''​focus''​ of their research (outward), while (2) others outside the systems academic domain ''​use''​ system principles (inward) to focus on ''​their''​ research, whatever that might be. An illustration of how systems thinking is practiced by those outside the systems movement can be found in the article [[systems biology]]. ​
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 [[http://​www.systemsbiology.org/​Intro_to_ISB_and_Systems_Biology/​Why_Systems_Matter]] [[http://​www.systemsbiology.org/​Intro_to_ISB_and_Systems_Biology/​Why_Systems_Matter]]
  
-Methodologies in general terms+MTHODOLOGIES IN GENERAL TERMS
  
 Systems biologists try to accomplish their aims in part: Systems biologists try to accomplish their aims in part:
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-Principle Investigators*'''​Ludwig von Bertalanffy'''​ (1901--1972):​ Author of General Systems Theory, co-founder of first systems research society, Society for General Systems Research. Generally regarded as the Father of systemics ​+PRINCIPLE INVESTIGATORS 
 + 
 +*'''​Ludwig von Bertalanffy'''​ (1901--1972):​ Author of General Systems Theory, co-founder of first systems research society, Society for General Systems Research. Generally regarded as the Father of systemics ​
  
 *was one of the most important theoretical biologists of the first half of this century; researched on comparative physiology, on biophysics, on cancer, on psychology, on philosophy of science ... *was one of the most important theoretical biologists of the first half of this century; researched on comparative physiology, on biophysics, on cancer, on psychology, on philosophy of science ...
primer_2.0.txt · Last modified: 2020/07/27 15:38 (external edit)