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*‘Ludwig von Bertalanffy’ (1901–1972): Author of General Systems Theory, co-founder of first systems research society, Society for General Systems Research. Generally regarded as the Father of systemics

*was one of the most important theoretical biologists of the first half of this century; researched on comparative physiology, on biophysics, on cancer, on psychology, on philosophy of science …

*developed a kinetic theory of stationary open systems and the General System Theory, was one of the founding fathers and vice-president of the Society for General System Theory, and one of the first who applied the system methodology to psychology and the social sciences …

*published over 200 articles on theoretical biology and General System Theory in journals, among others in Roux’ Archiv für Entwicklungsmechanik, Nature, Science, American Naturalist, Quarterly Review of Biology, Philosophy of Science, in books and encyclopedies, wrote over 10 monographies, edited the Handbuch der Biologie , and was translated into English, French, Spanish, Swedish, Japanese, Dutch …

*‘Charles François:’ Editor of the International Encyclopedia of Systemcs and Cybernetics. Encyclopedic summary of five thousand systemic terms. Two volumes.

*‘John N. Warfield:’ Interactive Management: First to treat systems science in a rigorous way. General Modeling Theory. Problematique Work Program of Complexity

*‘Gordon Pask’ Conversation theory “Gordon conceived human-machine interaction as a form of conversation, a dynamical process, in which the participants learn about each other. More recently, he worked on Interaction of Actors Theory Gordon’s major work was the development of Conversation Theory, with applications in education (Conversation, Cognition and Learning, Amsterdam:: Elsevier, 1975; Conversation Theory: Applications in Education and Epistemology , Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1976).This grew out of his work with teaching machines. Gordon conceived human-machine interaction as a form of conversation, a dynamical process, in which the participants learn about each other. More recently, he worked on Interaction of Actors Theory, which takes a broader look at communication and the dynamics of social systems. “

*‘Russell L Ackoff:’ Interactive Planning, Redesigning the future, Democratic corporations; In an interview by Robert Allio; “Ackoff: You have to understand how the interactions of the parts, and the parts with the whole and its environment, create the properties of the whole. Cause-effect is about actions, not interactions. Most managers currently manage the actions of their organizations’ parts taken separately. This is based on the false assumption that improving the performance of the parts separately necessarily improves the performance of the whole, the corporation. That is a false premise. In fact, you can destroy a corporation by improving its individual parts. Try putting a Rolls Royce engine in a Hyundai.”

*‘W Ross Ashby’ Requisite Vaiety Cybernetics Homeostatic machine his influence was sufficiently great to have induced Ludwig von Bertalanffly to devote several pages in his book to explaining how they differed on methods of study.1

*‘Bela H Banathy:’ Systems educator, Systems design of educatiohn; Evolutionary designing reprinted from Thoughts about Bela Banathy “Bela Banathy will go down in history as one of the great systemists along with von Bertalanffy and Wiener. But what sets Bela apart is that he was a great person as well. His scholarship is state of the art and unprecedented in the systems community. His contributions were not only significant but form the foundation of social-systemics. Without him, systems would be a technical tool rather than an evolutionary process.”çois

*‘Stafford Beer’ Viable Systems Model Organizational Systems design; He produced models applicable to the problems of structure, innovation, autonomy, participatory development, accountability and even pain and alerting in organisations. In the neurophysiological Viable System Model (VSM) he applied Homeostasis and Variety to neuroanatomy. Thus he was able to distinguish Identity maintaining Decisions, Development, Operational and Regulatory management. This supported a strict foundation for evolutionary control and founded Management Cybernetics.

*‘Kenneth Boulding’ Co-founder of SGSR Philosopher General Systems Theory, the skeleton of science

*Together with N. Georgescu-Roegen and K. W. Kapp, he was one of the first economists who recognized the open system character of the economy and brought intertemporal considerations into allocation and distribution theory.

*Boulding never fell into “entropy-pessimism”. In his evolutionary interpretation, the “arrow of time” does not only have the direction ordained by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Time is also irreversible with respect to creativity, the origination and extension of human knowledge, gains in complexity and morphogenesis. The phenomenon of how information arises - not just its procurement, diffusion or processing - is of central significance in his model. The ultimate aim of Boulding’s scholarly work was a comprehensive theory of development designed to explain economic phenomena on the basis of evolutionary principles.

*‘Peter Checkland’ Soft systems methodology, Systems thinking systems practice Peter Checkland dinner speech “I went back to the origins of the systems literature and the emergence of Systems Thinking fundamentally from biology and from the organismic biologists who argued that the object of concern in biology was the living organism as a whole and the way to understand that was to look at the processes which characterise living organisms of any kind. And that was a set of ideas which began to resonate with the kind of experiences that we were having. The fundamental idea that got us going was the thought that whether we were working in the giant corporation on the concorde project or in a tiny small firm; whether we werein the public sector or the private sector; all of these human problem situations do have one thing in common: That they contain human beings trying to work together and trying to operate purposefully. Trying to formulate intentions and then trying to realise them. And we thought well, why don’t we take the notion of a “purposeful activity” as a new systems concept.And when human beings talk about “purposeful activity” they give very rich interpretations of it. They never give a basic account of it, they interpret it richly. We then realised the significance of the fact that one observer’s terrorist is another observer’s freedom fighter though they’re both talking about the same purposeful action. And that we would have to take this into account, that we would never be making a purposeful activity model of a real world purposeful activity, we would have to make a whole set of models in order to try them out against the purposeful action that was underway in the real world.”

*‘C West Churchman‘Philosopher; The design of inquiring systems, thought and Wisdom Professor, School of Business Administration, University of California, “Professor Churchman has taught a variety of courses relating to the philosophy of management science including philosophy of systems science, introduction to ethics and value assumptions of planning and systems design, modeling and problem solving in management science. He also initiated the masters and PhD programs in operations research at the University of California, Berkeley.”

*‘Jay Forrester’ Systems Dynamics MIT Industrial Dynamics World Dynamics “This evening I have been asked to give not a technical talk but a very personal recollection of how I came to develop the field of system dynamics/ There are two threads that ran through the history. First, everything I have ever done has converged to become system dynamics. Second, at many critical moments, when opportunity knocked, I was willing to walk through the open door to what was on the other side.”

*‘George Klir’ Mathematics “From classical mathematics to fuzzy mathematics: emergence of a new paradigm for theoretical science.” In: Fuzzy Logic in Chemistry, Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 31-63.

*‘H. Linstone’ TOP perspectives; In Hal LInstone’s T.O.P. methodology, the different perspectives are grouped into the Technical, (T); the Organizational(O) and the Personal (P). He maintains that a Technical perspective will not, for example, focus on Personal issues…”Applied to a given system, each perspective yields insights not attainable with the others. Together, T, 0, and P form what Churchman calls a Singerian inquiring system.

*‘Niklas Luhmann’ Attempted to form a theory of social systems which is independant of the individual based on the autopoiesis of meaning.

*‘Humberto Maturana’ Autopoesis and Cognition *”It is our assumption that there is an organization that is common to all living systems, whichever the nature of their components. Since our object is this organization, not the particular ways in which it is realized, we shall not make distinctions between classes or types of living systems ….”

*”We are emphasizing that a living system is defined by its organization and, hence, that it can be explained as any organization is explained, that is, in terms of relations, not of component properties. (Maturana and Varela 1980, 76)”

*Margaret Mead Cybernetics, Macy

*Warren McCulloch

*Charles McClelland

*James Grier Miller Living Systems Theory

*‘Harold G Nelson‘Harold G. Nelson, Ph.D.,M.Arch., served as President of the International Society for Systems Science. Dr. Nelson designed and directed the Master of Arts Programs in Whole Systems Design and has been the Director of that program at Antioch University’s Seattle Campus for over 12 years. He has also been the Director of Antioch’s institute for the Whole Systems Design. He is President and Board Member of the Advanced Design Institute as well as a member of the Advisory Board for the Leadership institute of Seattle.

*‘Howard Odum‘In six decades as a professor of environmental sciences at a succession of universities, Dr. Odum pioneered research into ecosystems and helped integrate ecology and economics. His research, often conducted with his older brother, Eugene, an ecologist at the University of Georgia, who died on Aug. 10 at 88, led to the formation of many fields of science, including systems ecology, ecological economics and ecological engineering.

*‘Howard Pattee‘“Howard Pattee has identified that as a system becomes more elaborately hierarchical its behavior becomes simple. The reason is that, with the emergence of intermediate levels, the lowest level entities become constrained to be far from equilibrium. As a result, the lowest level entities lose degrees of freedom and are held against the upper level constraint to give constant behavior. Deep hierarchical structure indicates elaborate organization, and deep hierarchies are often considered as complex systems by virtue of hierarchical depth.”

*‘Ilya Prigogine‘Order out of Chaos “Professor Ilya Prigogine was born in Moscow, Russia, on January 25, 1917 and died in Bruxelles on May 28, 2003. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1977 for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures.”

*”The outstanding merit of Ilya Prigogine’s scientific work was to provide a better understanding of the role of time in the Physical Sciences and in Biology. He contributed significantly to the understanding of irreversible processes, particularly in systems far from equilibrium. The results of his work on dissipative structures have stimulated many scientists throughout the world and may have profound consequences for our understanding of biological systems.”

*‘Anatol Rapoport‘Co-founder SGSRThe programme of research and action proposed by the systemic approach have a chance to be implemented if science is guided by goals of enlightment instead by appetites of accumulation and power acquistion, as it is, for the most part today. This possible (but by no means guaranteed) byproduct of the information revolution could become an emergency exit from our past predicatment.” (The Systemic Approach to Environmental Sociology, 1996).

*‘Robert Rosen‘Biology; Modeling Relation; Anticipatory systems; (Fischler and Firschein, 1987, 233)

*”No finite organism can completely model the infinite universe, but even more to the point, the senses can only provide a subset of the needed information; the organism must correct the measured values and guess at the needed missing ones.”…”Indeed, even the best guesses can only be an approximation to reality - perception is a creative process.”

*Claude Shannon Communication Theory

*E.A. Singer Jr.Singer quote *Len Troncale Educator *Francisco Varela *Heinz von Foerster *John von Neumann *Geoffrey Vickers *Paul Watzlawick *Norbert Wiener

*‘Werner Ulrich‘Educator Critical Heuristics of systems

*”Critical systems heuristics (CSH, Ulrich 1983) represents the first systematic attempt at providing both a philosophical foundation and a practical framework for critical systems thinking. The Greek verb heurisk-ein means to find or to discover; heuristics is the art (or practice) of discovery. In management science and other applied disciplines, heuristic procedures serve to identify and explore relevant problem aspects, questions, or solution strategies, in distinction to deductive (algorithmic) procedures, which serve to solve problems that are logically and mathematically well defined. Professional practice cannot do without heuristics, as it usually starts from ‘soft’ (ill-defined, qualitative) issues such as what is the problem to be solved and what kind of change would represent an improvement.” *”In management science and other applied disciplines, heuristic procedures serve to identify and explore relevant problem aspects, questions, or solution strategies, in distinction to deductive (algorithmic) procedures, which serve to solve problems that are logically and mathematically well defined. Professional practice cannot do without heuristics, as it usually starts from ‘soft’ (ill-defined, qualitative) issues such as what is the problem to be solved and what kind of change would represent an improvement”

principle_investigators.txt · Last modified: 2015/01/31 23:55 (external edit)